Archive for the ‘physics’ category: Page 7

Apr 19, 2024

Joscha Bach Λ Karl Friston: AI, Death, Self, God, Consciousness

Posted by in categories: physics, robotics/AI

Karl Friston, Joscha Bach, and Curt Jaimungal delve into death, neuroscientific models of Ai, God, and consciousness. SPONSOR: HelloFresh: Go to… and use code theoriesofeverythingfree for FREE breakfast for life!

- 00:00:00 Introduction.
- 00:01:47 Karl and Joscha’s new paper.
- 00:09:13 Sentience vs. consciousness vs. The Self.
- 00:21:00 Self-organization, thingness, and self-evidencing.
- 00:29:02 Overlapping realities and physics as art.
- 00:41:05 Mortal computation and substrate-agnostic AI
- 00:56:38 Beyond Von Neumann architectures.
- 01:00:23 AI surpassing human researchers.
- 01:20:34 Exploring vs. Exploiting (the risk of curiosity in academia)
- 01:27:02 Incompleteness and interdependence.
- 01:32:25 Defining consciousness.
- 01:53:36 Multiple overlapping consciousnesses.
- 02:03:03 Unified experience and schizophrenia \.

Apr 19, 2024

New Physics at Play: Physicists Discover a New Force Acting on Water Droplets Moving Over Superhydrophobic Surfaces

Posted by in categories: physics, solar power, sustainability

Researchers at Aalto University have discovered a new force acting on water droplets moving over superhydrophobic surfaces like black silicon by adapting a novel force measurement technique to uncover the previously unidentified physics at play. This force, identified as air-shearing, challenges previous understandings and suggests modifications in the design of these surfaces to reduce drag, potentially improving their efficiency and application in various fields.

Microscopic chasms forming a sea of conical jagged peaks stipple the surface of a material called black silicon. While it’s commonly found in solar cell tech, black silicon also moonlights as a tool for studying the physics of how water droplets behave.

Black silicon is a superhydrophobic material, meaning it repels water. Due to water’s unique surface tension properties, droplets glide across textured materials like black silicon by riding on a thin air-film gap trapped beneath. This works great when the droplets move slowly—they slip and slide without a hitch.

Apr 18, 2024

Attosecond imaging made possible by short and powerful laser pulses

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, physics

Extremely short pulses of laser light with a peak power of 6 terawatts (6 trillion watts)—roughly equivalent to the power produced by 6,000 nuclear power plants—have been realized by two RIKEN physicists. This achievement will help further develop attosecond lasers, for which three researchers were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2023. The work is published in the journal Nature Photonics.

Apr 17, 2024

Predictive Power Unleashed by MIT’s Advanced Bayesian Optimization

Posted by in categories: information science, physics, space

An easy-to-use technique could assist everyone from economists to sports analysts.

Pollsters trying to predict presidential election results and physicists searching for distant exoplanets have at least one thing in common: They often use a tried-and-true scientific technique called Bayesian inference.

Bayesian inference allows these scientists to effectively estimate some unknown parameter — like the winner of an election — from data such as poll results. But Bayesian inference can be slow, sometimes consuming weeks or even months of computation time or requiring a researcher to spend hours deriving tedious equations by hand.

Apr 17, 2024

Does past, present and future exist simultaneously? Is Time an Illusion?

Posted by in categories: alien life, information science, physics

Is time an illusion? If not, what is time? Why does time flow forward? You are watching this video. Your brain cells are firing in anticipation. A story is unfolding. Time is moving forward. Or is it? What if I told you that nothing is happening. There is no story unfolding. The story has already been told. The video has already been uploaded and seen by others. You are just watching it one second at a time, so there is a story unfolding for you only. What if your entire life was like this video upload, like a DVD. The story of your life is already on that DVD. The only difference is that you don’t have a forward and reverse button. You are forced to experience your DVD one moment at a time. There is some strong scientific evidence that this may be the true nature of reality. If so, that could mean that everything you think you know is utterly an illusion. Einstein’s theory of relativity supports something called the block universe, which is really a four dimensional space time structure. This means that every event has its own coordinates not only in space but in time. So for example, wherever you are right now corresponds to a location in 3 dimensions, like London, England — and a location in time, 2PM on Feb 2, 2019. But just like the space 10 feet ahead of you is as real as the space 10 feet behind you, so too is the moment 10 minutes into the future and 10 minutes into the past. In other words, the past and future exist just as much as the present. MIT physicist Max Tegmark says we can view the universe as a three dimensional space where stuff happens, or four dimensional block universe where nothing happens. If it is the latter, he says, then change is really an illusion, because nothing is changing. It’s all there – past, present and future – like a DVD. A drama maybe unfolding in the movie recorded on the dvd, but nothing about the DVD is changing in any way. We may have the illusion, at any given moment, that the past already happened and the future doesn’t yet exist, and that things are changing. But the only reason we may have a past is that our brain contains memories of the past. If we did not have any memories, would we have any sense of the past, or of a sense of time at all? Is it possible that time doesn’t actually exist except through our perception of it? Physics doesn’t help us when it comes to the arrow of time – it is time-agnostic. If time was running backwards, all the equations would still be valid. So mathematically, physics does not say that time goes forward or backward. It just says that time Time can not be zero, but it can run either forward or backward without violating any laws. Time is symmetric. But this is counterintuitive. Reality seems to be telling us that time does exist, and that its arrow points in only one direction — forward. Why doesn’t the arrow of time flow backward, if physics says it is equally likely. It would have been possible if it were not for one aspect of physics, and that is the law of entropy. Entropy is a measure of the disorderliness of the universe. Things always get more disorderly. You can scramble and egg, but you can’t unscramble it. This is entropy increasing. Entropy appears to be the only reason the arrow of time is what it is. But why is Entropy always becoming higher? Why doesn’t it become lower? There doesn’t appear to be any fundamental reason for that. Alan Guth, professor at MIT, who pioneered the idea of cosmic inflation, may have solved this riddle. He argues that information and entropy are almost the same thing. In order to know your past, you have to form memories. Adding memories means adding information. Adding information increases entropy. Therefore a conscious system can only be conscious in one direction – when entropy increases, which allows information to increase. This implies that we are conscious because we live in a universe of increasing entropy. Consciousness cannot exist in a universe where entropy decreases. So if entropy has been increasing since the beginning of time, it means that the universe must have started at the lowest possible state of entropy at the beginning…at the big bang. Why then did the universe start off this way, resulting in forward time? Alan Guth says that if the universe is infinitely large, then the total potential entropy of the universe is infinite. If that is the case, then any entropy you start with is low entropy. The entropy will increase from any given starting point he says. This means that it doesn’t matter what the entropy of the big bang was, it would always be the lowest entropy, because there will always be a larger entropy number that the universe can flow to. And seemingly, we exist because time has flowed in a favorable direction for causality to occur, namely, it has flowed forward in our universe. But what about the block universe, are we living inside a DVD?…watch the video for the answer.

Apr 17, 2024

How logic alone may prove that time doesn’t exist

Posted by in categories: physics, space

I found this on NewsBreak: How logic alone may prove that time doesn’t exist.

Apr 17, 2024

Most massive stellar black hole in the Milky Way discovered ‘extremely close’ to Earth

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

I found this on NewsBreak: Most massive stellar black hole in the Milky Way discovered ‘extremely close’ to Earth.

Astronomers have found the most massive stellar-mass black hole ever discovered in our galaxy — and it’s lurking “extremely close” to Earth, according to new research.

The black hole, named Gaia BH3, is 33 times more massive than our sun. Cygnus X-1, the next-biggest stellar black hole known in our galaxy, weighs only 21 solar masses. The newfound black hole is located roughly 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Aquila, making it the second-closest known black hole to Earth.

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Apr 16, 2024

Scientists make breakthrough with advanced technology generating water from thin air — and it could save millions of lives

Posted by in categories: energy, physics, sustainability

I found this on NewsBreak.

Researchers in China have reportedly developed a new technology similar to hydropanels for harvesting water out of thin air that is powered by energy from the sun. The device could be especially useful in dry, arid areas where water — but not sunlight — is hard to come by.

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Apr 16, 2024

Will Emergent Gravity Rewrite Physics?

Posted by in category: physics

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Apr 14, 2024

Warp Drives: New Simulations

Posted by in categories: cosmology, mathematics, physics, space travel

Learn more from a science course on Brilliant! First 30 days are free and 20% off the annual premium subscription when you use our link ➜

Hyperjumps, wormholes, and warp drives sound like science fiction, but they’re actually based on real science! Though I believe out of the three, warp drives are the most plausible. The math seems to agree. Today I want to tell you about a new way of analysing and visualizing warp drives.

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