Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category

Jan 24, 2020

Group membership dictates the neural correlates of social optimism biases

Posted by in categories: futurism, neuroscience

Optimism bias, i.e. expecting the future to hold more desirable than undesirable outcomes, also extends to people that we like or admire. However, it remains unknown how the brain generates this social optimism bias. In this study, respondents estimated the likelihood of future desirable and undesirable outcomes for an in-group and three out-groups: warm-incompetent, cold-competent, and cold-incompetent. We found a strong social optimism bias for the in-group and the warm out-group and an inverted pattern for the cold-incompetent out-group. For all groups, scores of social optimism bias correlated with the brain activity in structures that respondents differentially engaged depending on the target social group. In line with our hypotheses, evaluating the in-group recruited the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, whereas evaluating the warm out-group engaged the posterior insula, mid cingulate cortex, and somatosensory cortices. These findings suggest different underlying cognitive mechanisms of social optimism bias for these groups, despite similar behavioural patterns. Thinking about the cold out-groups recruited the right anterior temporal lobe, and temporoparietal junction. Evaluating the cold-incompetent out-group additionally recruited the anterior insula, inferior frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal cortex. We discuss these neuroimaging findings with respect to their putative cognitive functions.

Jan 24, 2020

Genomics Pioneer: Travels World To Discover Which Countries’ Healthcare Money Goes Furthest and Why

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, business, life extension, neuroscience

Genomics and BioPharma Pioneer!! — On this ideaXme ( episode, I had the honor of being joined by Dr. William Haseltine — biologist, entrepreneur and philanthropist, known for his groundbreaking work on HIV/AIDS and the human genome, now focusing on the issues of healthcare costs, dementia care, and aging — #Ideaxme #Genomics #RegenerativeMedicine #BillHaseltine #Dementia #Biotechnology #Harvard #JamesWatson #WalterGilbert #DavidBaltimore #MIT #CraigVenter #Health #Wellness #Regeneration #Longevity #Aging #IraPastor #Bioquark #Regenerage

Ira Pastor, ideaXme exponential health ambassador, interviews Dr. William Haseltine, American biologist, entrepreneur and philanthropist, known for his groundbreaking work on HIV/AIDS and the human genome.

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Jan 23, 2020

Revel Pharma to repair collagen damaged by aging and diabetes using designer enzymes

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, life extension, neuroscience

For the past 10 years, Yale Professors David Spiegel and Jason Crawford have been working on tools to enable the development of glucosepane-cleaving drugs. Kizoo Technology Capital investors say now is the time to advance this groundbreaking research toward the clinic and are leading funding of a new company, Revel Pharmaceuticals Inc., founded by Drs. David Spiegel, Jason Crawford, and Aaron Cravens.

Kizoo leads the seed financing round at Revel, with Oculus co-founder Michael Antonov participating. SENS Research Foundation provided funding to the YaleGlycoSENS group for several years.

The long-lived collagen proteins that give structure to our arteries, skin, and other tissues are continuously exposed to blood sugar and other highly reactive molecules necessary for life. Occasionally, these sugar molecules will bind to collagen and form toxic crosslinks that alter the physical properties of tissues and cause inflammation. As a result, tissues slowly stiffen with aging, leading to rising systolic blood pressure, skin aging, kidney damage, and increased risk of stroke and other damage to the brain.

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Jan 23, 2020

Stimulating Blood Vessel Growth Using FGF1 May Hold Promise for PD, Company Says

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Stimulating the growth of blood vessels in the brain through the use of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) may hold promise as a strategy for treating Parkinson’s disease, according to a white paper released by Zhittya Genesis Medicine (ZGM). Clinical trials testing this theory are being planned.

The white paper is titled “Parkinson’s Disease: Therapeutic Angiogenesis as a Disease Modifying, Breakthrough Therapy?”

Jan 23, 2020

Noisy signals strengthen human brainwaves

Posted by in category: neuroscience

‘Stochastic resonance’ seen in the brain’s information processing area.

Jan 23, 2020

Fighting Poverty With Early Childhood Education: James Heckman-JAPAN On Demand

Posted by in categories: education, neuroscience

Nobel laureate James Heckman demonstrated a connection between developing non-cognitive skills in early childhood and success in life. He advocates supporting parents, to lift children from poverty.

Jan 23, 2020

Largest Brain Wiring Diagram to Date Is Published

Posted by in category: neuroscience

The partial fruit fly “connectome” contains approximately 25,000 neurons and 20 million synapses.

Jan 23, 2020

Google publishes largest ever high-resolution map of brain connectivity

Posted by in categories: mapping, neuroscience

Scientists from Google and the Janelia Research Campus in Virginia have published the largest high-resolution map of brain connectivity in any animal, sharing a 3D model that traces 20 million synapses connecting some 25,000 neurons in the brain of a fruit fly.

The model is a milestone in the field of connectomics, which uses detailed imaging techniques to map the physical pathways of the brain. This map, known as a “connectome,” covers roughly one-third of the fruit fly’s brain. To date, only a single organism, the roundworm C. elegans, has had its brain completely mapped in this way.

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Jan 22, 2020

New tech can observe the brain & heart simultaneously

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Scientists have been able to capture real-time 3D footage of blood flowing through the human body, which could help doctors observe the function of multiple organs at the same time.

Jan 22, 2020

Brain organoids may shed light on seizures in Angelman syndrome

Posted by in categories: genetics, neuroscience

The mutation that causes Angelman syndrome makes neurons hyperexcitable, according to a study in brain organoids and mice1. The findings may help explain why about 90 percent of people with the syndrome experience seizures that do not respond to treatment.

Angelman syndrome is a rare genetic condition linked to autism. It is caused when the maternal copy of a gene called UBE3A is either missing or mutated. Apart from seizures, the condition is characterized by developmental delay, problems with balance and speech, and an unusually happy disposition.

The new study found that mutations in UBE3A suppress the production of proteins that keep the activity of ‘big potassium’ ion channels in check. These channels control the flow of large amounts of potassium ions passing through neurons. When the current increases in the absence of UBE3A, the neurons become exceptionally excitable.

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