Archive for the ‘mathematics’ category

Feb 3, 2023

Conducting the Mathematical Orchestra From the Middle

Posted by in category: mathematics

Emily Riehl is rewriting the foundations of higher category theory while also working to make mathematics more inclusive.

Feb 3, 2023

The Coming Consciousness Explosion | Dr. Ben Goertzel | SCS2022

Posted by in categories: finance, health, mathematics, physics, robotics/AI, singularity, transhumanism

Dr. Ben Goertzel.

The Coming Consciousness Explosion.

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Feb 3, 2023

Everything — Yes, Everything — is a SPRING! (Pretty much)

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics, neuroscience, particle physics, quantum physics

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Science Asylum video on Schrodinger Equation:

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Feb 3, 2023

Neil Turok: Physics is in Crisis

Posted by in categories: alien life, information science, mathematics, quantum physics

Renowned physicist Neil Turok, Holder of the Higgs Chair of Theoretical Physics at the University of Edinburgh, joins me to discuss the state of science and the universe. is Physics in trouble? What hope is there to return to more productive and Simple theories? What is Peter Higgs up to?

Neil Turok has been director emeritus of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics since 2019. He specializes in mathematical physics and early-universe physics, including the cosmological constant and a cyclic model for the universe.

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Feb 2, 2023

A precise X-ray thermometer for warm dense matter

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, mathematics

Warm dense matter (WDM) measures thousands of degrees in temperature and is under the pressure of thousands of Earth’s atmospheres. Found in many places throughout the universe, it is expected to have beneficial applications on Earth. However, its investigation is a challenge.

Even the temperature of a material under WDM conditions is anything but easy to determine. A team of researchers led by Dr. Tobias Dornheim from the Center for Advanced Systems Understanding (CASUS) at HZDR has demonstrated a mathematical solution that allows an accurate assessment of the temperature.

As the team points out in the journal Nature Communications, their method can readily be used at experimental facilities of matter research around the world and expedite the gain of scientific knowledge.

Feb 2, 2023

The first lab-created ‘quantum abacus’

Posted by in categories: mathematics, quantum physics

Do you want to know whether a very large integer is a prime number or not? Or if it is a “lucky number”? A new study by SISSA, carried out in collaboration with the University of Trieste and the University of Saint Andrews, suggests an innovative method that could help answer such questions through physics, using some sort of “quantum abacus.”

By combining theoretical and , scientists were able to reproduce a quantum potential with corresponding to the first 15 and the first 10 lucky numbers using holographic laser techniques. This result, published in PNAS Nexus, opens the door to obtaining potentials with finite sequences of integers as arbitrary quantum energies, and to addressing mathematical questions related to with quantum mechanical experiments.

“Every physical system is characterized by a certain set of energy levels, which basically make up its ID,” explains Giuseppe Mussardo, at SISSA—International School for Advanced Studies. “In this work, we have reversed this line of reasoning: is it possible—starting from an arithmetic sequence, for example that of prime numbers—to obtain a quantum system with those very numbers as energy levels?”

Feb 2, 2023

Performing matrix multiplications at the speed of light for enhanced cybersecurity

Posted by in categories: cybercrime/malcode, mathematics, robotics/AI

“All things are numbers,” avowed Pythagoras. Today, 25 centuries later, algebra and mathematics are everywhere in our lives, whether we see them or not. The Cambrian-like explosion of artificial intelligence (AI) brought numbers even closer to us all, since technological evolution allows for parallel processing of a vast amounts of operations.

Progressively, operations between scalars (numbers) were parallelized into operations between vectors, and subsequently, matrices. Multiplication between matrices now trends as the most time-and energy-demanding operation of contemporary AI computational systems. A technique called “tiled matrix multiplication” (TMM) helps to speed computation by decomposing matrix operations into smaller tiles to be computed by the same system in consecutive time slots. But modern electronic AI engines, employing transistors, are approaching their intrinsic limits and can hardly compute at clock-frequencies higher than ~2 GHz.

The compelling credentials of light—ultrahigh speeds and significant energy and footprint savings—offer a solution. Recently a team of photonic researchers of the WinPhos Research group, led by Prof. Nikos Pleros from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, harnessed the power of light to develop a compact silicon photonic computer engine capable of computing TMMs at a record-high 50 GHz clock frequency.

Feb 1, 2023

The interior design of our cells

Posted by in category: mathematics

Database of 200,000 cell images yields new mathematical framework to understand our cellular building blocks.

Jan 31, 2023

Scientists Reveal New Potential Therapeutic Targets for Mental and Neurological Disorders

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, mathematics, media & arts, neuroscience

A recent study from researchers at the University of California, Irvine found that the removal of cilia from the striatum region of the brain negatively impacted time perception and judgement, opening the possibility for new therapeutic targets for mental and neurological conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder that affects how a person communicates and interacts with others. It is characterized by difficulty with social communication and interaction, as well as repetitive behaviors and interests. ASD can range from mild to severe, and individuals with ASD may have a wide range of abilities and challenges. It is a spectrum disorder because the symptoms and characteristics of ASD can vary widely from person to person. Some people with ASD are highly skilled in certain areas, such as music or math, while others may have significant learning disabilities.

Jan 31, 2023

Distributed harmonic patterns of structure-function dependence orchestrate human consciousness

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, mathematics, neuroscience

Connectome harmonic decomposition (CHD) generalises the mathematics of the Fourier transform to the network structure of the human brain. The traditional Fourier transform operates in the temporal domain (Fig. 1a): decomposition into temporal harmonics quantifies to what extent the signal varies slowly (low-frequency temporal harmonics) or quickly (high-frequency temporal harmonics) over time (Fig. 1b). Analogously, CHD re-represents a spatial signal in terms of harmonic modes of the human connectome, so that the spatial frequency (granularity) of each connectome harmonic quantifies to what extent the organization of functional brain signals deviates from the organization of the underlying structural network (Fig. 1c, d). Therefore, CHD is fundamentally different from, and complementary to, traditional approaches to functional MRI data analysis. This is because CHD does not view functional brain activity as composed of signals from discrete spatial locations, but rather as composed of contributions from distinct spatial frequencies: each connectome harmonic is a whole-brain pattern with a characteristic spatial scale (granularity)—from an entire hemisphere to just a few millimetres.

On one hand, this means that CHD is unsuitable to address questions pertaining to spatial localisation and the involvement of specific neuroanatomical regions; such questions have been extensively investigated within the traditional framework of viewing brain activity in terms of spatially discrete regions, and several previous studies have implicated specific neuroanatomical regions in supporting consciousness33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49. On the other hand, CHD enables us to consider how brain activity across states of consciousness is shaped by the brain’s distributed network of structural connections, reflecting the contribution of global patterns at different spatial scales—each arising from the network topology of the human connectome. We emphasise that neither approach is inherently superior, but rather they each provide a unique perspective on brain function: one localised, the other distributed.

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