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Archive for the ‘chemistry’ category

Jan 27, 2023

A drug that increases dopamine can reverse the effects of inflammation on the brain in depression, Emory study shows

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, neuroscience

๐€ ๐๐ซ๐ฎ๐  ๐ญ๐ก๐š๐ญ ๐ข๐ง๐œ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ฌ๐ž๐ฌ ๐๐จ๐ฉ๐š๐ฆ๐ข๐ง๐ž ๐œ๐š๐ง ๐ซ๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ๐ž ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ž๐Ÿ๐Ÿ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ข๐ง๐Ÿ๐ฅ๐š๐ฆ๐ฆ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐จ๐ง ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐›๐ซ๐š๐ข๐ง ๐ข๐ง ๐๐ž๐ฉ๐ซ๐ž๐ฌ๐ฌ๐ข๐จ๐ง, ๐„๐ฆ๐จ๐ซ๐ฒ ๐ฌ๐ญ๐ฎ๐๐ฒ ๐ฌ๐ก๐จ๐ฐ๐ฌ

๐˜ผ๐™ฃ ๐™€๐™ข๐™ค๐™ง๐™ฎ ๐™๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š๐™ง๐™จ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ฎ ๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ช๐™™๐™ฎ ๐™ฅ๐™ช๐™—๐™ก๐™ž๐™จ๐™๐™š๐™™ ๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™‰๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ช๐™ง๐™šโ€™๐™จ ๐™ˆ๐™ค๐™ก๐™š๐™˜๐™ช๐™ก๐™–๐™ง ๐™‹๐™จ๐™ฎ๐™˜๐™๐™ž๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™ฎ ๐™จ๐™๐™ค๐™ฌ๐™จ ๐™ก๐™š๐™ซ๐™ค๐™™๐™ค๐™ฅ๐™–, ๐™– ๐™™๐™ง๐™ช๐™œ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™–๐™ฉ ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™˜๐™ง๐™š๐™–๐™จ๐™š๐™จ ๐™™๐™ค๐™ฅ๐™–๐™ข๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™š ๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™—๐™ง๐™–๐™ž๐™ฃ, ๐™๐™–๐™จ ๐™ฅ๐™ค๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™–๐™ก ๐™ฉ๐™ค ๐™ง๐™š๐™ซ๐™š๐™ง๐™จ๐™š ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™š๐™›๐™›๐™š๐™˜๐™ฉ๐™จ ๐™ค๐™› ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™›๐™ก๐™–๐™ข๐™ข๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™—๐™ง๐™–๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™ง๐™š๐™ฌ๐™–๐™ง๐™™ ๐™˜๐™ž๐™ง๐™˜๐™ช๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™ฎ, ๐™ช๐™ก๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ข๐™–๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ก๐™ฎ ๐™ž๐™ข๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™ค๐™ซ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™จ๐™ฎ๐™ข๐™ฅ๐™ฉ๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™จ ๐™ค๐™› ๐™™๐™š๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™š๐™จ๐™จ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ.

Numerous labs across the world have shown that inflammation causes reduced motivation and anhedonia, a core symptom of depression, by affecting the brainโ€™s reward pathways.

Continue reading “A drug that increases dopamine can reverse the effects of inflammation on the brain in depression, Emory study shows” »

Jan 27, 2023

Meteorites reveal likely origin of Earthโ€™s volatile chemicals

Posted by in categories: alien life, chemistry

Meteorites have told Imperial researchers the likely far-flung origin of Earthโ€™s volatile chemicals, some of which form the building blocks of life.

They found that around half the Earthโ€™s inventory of the volatile element came from asteroids originating in the outer solar systemโ€”the part beyond the that includes the planets Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. This material is also expected to have supplied other important volatiles such as water.

Volatiles are elements or compounds that change from solid or into vapor at relatively low temperatures. They include the six most common elements found in living organisms, as well as water. As such, the addition of this material will have been important for the emergence of life on Earth.

Jan 27, 2023

NASA and DARPA will test nuclear thermal engines for crewed missions to Mars

Posted by in categories: chemistry, space travel

Nuclear thermal rocket engines could help get astronauts to Mars more quickly than by chemical propulsion methods. NASA and DARPA are working on nuclear thermal propulsion tech that they hope to test as soon as 2027.

Jan 27, 2023

Solar system formed from โ€˜poorly mixed cake batter,โ€™ isotope research shows

Posted by in categories: chemistry, space

Earthโ€™s potassium arrived by meteoritic delivery service finds new research led by Carnegieโ€™s Nicole Nie and Da Wang. Their work, published in Science, shows that some primitive meteorites contain a different mix of potassium isotopes than those found in other, more-chemically processed meteorites. These results can help elucidate the processes that shaped our solar system and determined the composition of its planets.

โ€œThe found in enable stars to manufacture elements using ,โ€ explained Nie, a former Carnegie postdoc now at Caltech. โ€œEach stellar generation seeds the raw material from which subsequent generations are born and we can trace the history of this material across time.โ€

Some of the material produced in the interiors of stars can be ejected out into space, where it accumulates as a cloud of gas and dust. More than 4.5 billion years ago, one such cloud collapsed in on itself to form our sun.

Jan 27, 2023

Researchers find ways to improve the storage time of quantum information in a spin rich material

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing, quantum physics, security

An international team of scientists have demonstrated a leap in preserving the quantum coherence of quantum dot spin qubits as part of the global push for practical quantum networks and quantum computers.

These technologies will be transformative to a broad range of industries and research efforts: from the security of information transfer, through the search for materials and chemicals with novel properties, to measurements of fundamental physical phenomena requiring precise time synchronization among the sensors.

Spin-photon interfaces are elementary building blocks for that allow converting stationary quantum information (such as the quantum state of an ion or a solid-state spin qubit) into light, namely photons, that can be distributed over large distances. A major challenge is to find an interface that is both good at storing quantum information and efficient at converting it into light.

Jan 26, 2023

Cancer cells may shrink or super-size to survive

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, genetics, mathematics

Cancer cells can shrink or super-size themselves to survive drug treatment or other challenges within their environment, researchers have discovered.

Scientists at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, combined biochemical profiling technologies with to reveal how lead to differences in the size of cancer cellsโ€”and how these changes could be exploited by new treatments.

The researchers believe smaller cells could be more vulnerable to DNA-damaging agents like chemotherapy combined with targeted drugs, while larger cancer cells might respond better to immunotherapy.

Jan 26, 2023

AI has designed bacteria-killing proteins from scratch โ€” and they work

Posted by in categories: chemistry, robotics/AI

The AI, called ProGen, works in a similar way to AIs that can generate text. ProGen learned how to generate new proteins by learning the grammar of how amino acids combine to form 280 million existing proteins. Instead of the researchers choosing a topic for the AI to write about, they could specify a group of similar proteins for it to focus on. In this case, they chose a group of proteins with antimicrobial activity.

The researchers programmed checks into the AIโ€™s process so it wouldnโ€™t produce amino acid โ€œgibberishโ€, but they also tested a sample of the AI-proposed molecules in real cells. Of the 100 molecules they physically created, 66 participated in chemical reactions similar to those of natural proteins that destroy bacteria in egg whites and saliva. This suggested that these new proteins could also kill bacteria.

The researchers selected the five proteins with the most intense reactions and added them to a sample of Escherichia coli bacteria. Two of the proteins destroyed the bacteria.

Continue reading “AI has designed bacteria-killing proteins from scratch โ€” and they work” »

Jan 26, 2023

US lawmaker say DNA-targeted biological weapons are being developed

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, military

Biological and chemical weapons have the potential to pose a national security threat to the U.S. that the country is not equipped to handle, a panel of lawmakers and a military leader told an audience at the Aspen Security Forum.

Jan 25, 2023

Researchers propose combining classical and quantum optics for super-resolution imaging

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, quantum physics

The ability to see invisible structures in our bodies, like the inner workings of cells, or the aggregation of proteins, depends on the quality of oneโ€™s microscope. Ever since the first optical microscopes were invented in the 17th century, scientists have pushed for new ways to see more things more clearly, at smaller scales and deeper depths.

Randy Bartels, professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Colorado State University, is one of those scientists. He and a team of researchers at CSU and Colorado School of Mines are on a quest to invent some of the worldโ€™s most powerful light microscopesโ€”ones that can resolve large swaths of biological material in unimaginable detail.

The name of the game is superโ€“resolution microscopy, which is any optical imaging technique that can resolve things smaller than half the wavelength of light. The discipline was the subject of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and Bartels and others are in a race to keep circumventing that to illuminate biologically important structures inside the body.

Jan 24, 2023

Researchers Find Way To Reverse Aging

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, genetics, life extension, neuroscience

Recent experiments conducted in Boston labs have shown reverse aging results among mice and could show similar results in people.

The combined experiments โ€” which were conducted during a span of 13 years โ€” published Thursday (January 12) in the scientific journal Cell reported that old, blind mice regained eyesight, developed smarter brains and built healthier muscle and kidney tissue, challenging the theory that DNA was the only cause of aging, as it proved that chemical and structural changes to chromatin played a factor without altering genetic code.

The research showed that a breakdown in epigenetic information caused the mice to age and the restoration of the epigenome reversed aging effects.

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