Archive for the ‘chemistry’ category

Jan 21, 2020

Scientists Are Building a Real-Life Version of the Starship Enterprise’s Life Scanner

Posted by in categories: chemistry, electronics

A novel method relying on biochemistry could provide an unambiguous signal of life on other worlds.

Jan 21, 2020

Computational Biology

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, computing, genetics, mathematics

Computational biology is the combined application of math, statistics and computer science to solve biology-based problems. Examples of biology problems are: genetics, evolution, cell biology, biochemistry. [1].

Jan 20, 2020

A List of 10 Largest Stars In The Universe Discovered So Far

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, education, space

Author at The Secrets of the Universe, I am a Biology and Chemistry high school student from Poland. I love writing about conquest and research in space and future possibilities for Humanity and Astrophysics.

Jan 19, 2020

Sugar alters brain chemistry after only 12 days

Posted by in categories: chemistry, neuroscience

New research in pigs examines how sugar intake affects the brain’s reward circuits and finds that changes are noticeable after just 12 days.

Jan 15, 2020

Precise measurements find a crack in universal physics

Posted by in categories: chemistry, cosmology, particle physics, quantum physics

The concept of universal physics is intriguing, as it enables researchers to relate physical phenomena in a variety of systems, irrespective of their varying characteristics and complexities. Ultracold atomic systems are often perceived as ideal platforms for exploring universal physics, owing to the precise control of experimental parameters (such as the interaction strength, temperature, density, quantum states, dimensionality, and the trapping potential) that might be harder to tune in more conventional systems. In fact, ultracold atomic systems have been used to better understand a myriad of complex physical behavior, including those topics in cosmology, particle, nuclear, molecular physics, and most notably, in condensed matter physics, where the complexities of many-body quantum phenomena are more difficult to investigate using more traditional approaches.

Understanding the applicability and the robustness of universal is thus of great interest. Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado Boulder have carried out a study, recently featured in Physical Review Letters, aimed at testing the limits to universality in an ultracold system.

“Unlike in other physical systems, the beauty of ultracold systems is that at times we are able to scrap the importance of the periodic table and demonstrate the similar phenomenon with any chosen atomic species (be it potassium, rubidium, lithium, strontium, etc.),” Roman Chapurin, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told “Universal behavior is independent of the microscopic details. Understanding the limitations of universal phenomenon is of great interest.”

Jan 15, 2020

Figure 1: A CRISPR–Cas9 genetically engineered mouse model for MERS-CoV replication

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, genetics, neuroscience

A, C57BL/6J mice were genetically engineered using CRISPR–Cas9 genomic editing to encode 288L and 330R in mDPP4 on one chromosome (heterozygous, 288/330+/−) or on both chromosomes (homozygous, 288/330+/+). b, Northern blot of mDPP4 mRNA expression. c, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of mDPP4 protein in the lungs, brain and kidneys of individual C57BL/6J wild-type (WT), 288/330+/− and 288/330+/+ mice. d, Viral titres for MERS-CoV at 3 days post-infection from C57BL/6J WT, 288/330+/− and 288/330+/+ (all n = 4) mice infected with 5 × 105 plaque-forming units (p.f.u.) of the indicated viruses. Bar graphs show means + s.d.

Jan 14, 2020

Hyperuniform disordered waveguides and devices for near infrared silicon photonics

Posted by in categories: chemistry, internet, physics, robotics/AI, space

In a new report published on Scientific Reports, Milan M. Milošević and an international research team at the Zepler Institute for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Etaphase Incorporated and the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, in the U.S. and the U.K. Introduced a hyperuniform-disordered platform to realize near-infrared (NIR) photonic devices to create, detect and manipulate light. They built the device on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform to demonstrate the functionality of the structures in a flexible, silicon-integrated circuit unconstrained by crystalline symmetries. The scientists reported results for passive device elements, including waveguides and resonators seamlessly integrated with conventional silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and vertical couplers. The hyperuniform-disordered platform improved compactness and enhanced energy efficiency as well as temperature stability, compared to silicon photonic devices fabricated on rib and strip waveguides.

Academic and commercial efforts worldwide in the field of silicon photonics have led to engineer optical data communications at the Terabit-scale at increasingly lower costs to meet the rapidly growing demand in data centers. Explosive growth in cloud computing and entertainment-on-demand pose increasingly challenging costs and energy requirements for , processing and storage. Optical interconnects can replace traditional copper-based solutions to offer steadily increasing potential to minimize latency and , while maximizing the bandwidth and reliability of the devices. Silicon photonics also leverage large-scale, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing processes to produce high-performance optical transceivers with high yield at low-cost. The properties allow applications of optical transceivers (fiber optical technology to send and receive data) to be increasingly compelling across shorter distances.

More than three decades ago, physicist Richard Soref identified silicon as a promising material for photonic integration. Leading to the present-day steady development and rapid production of increasingly complex photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Researchers can integrate large numbers of massively-parallel compact energy-efficient optical components on a single chip for cloud computing applications from deep learning to artificial intelligence and the internet of things. Compared to the limited scope of commercial silicon photonic systems, photonic crystal (PhC) architectures promise smaller device sizes, although they are withheld by layout constraints imposed by waveguide requirements along the photonic crystal’s axis. Until recently, photonic band gap (PBG) structures that efficiently guide light were limited to photonic crystal platforms. Now, newer classes of PBG structures include photonic quasicrystals, hyperuniform disordered solids (HUDs) and local self-uniform structures.

Jan 2, 2020

Researchers build a particle accelerator that fits on a chip

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, computing, nanotechnology

The accelerator-on-a-chip demonstrated in Science is just a prototype, but Vuckovic said its design and fabrication techniques can be scaled up to deliver particle beams accelerated enough to perform cutting-edge experiments in chemistry, materials science and biological discovery that don’t require the power of a massive accelerator.

“The largest accelerators are like powerful telescopes. There are only a few in the world and scientists must come to places like SLAC to use them,” Vuckovic said. “We want to miniaturize accelerator technology in a way that makes it a more accessible research tool.”

Team members liken their approach to the way that computing evolved from the mainframe to the smaller but still useful PC. Accelerator-on-a-chip technology could also lead to new cancer radiation therapies, said physicist Robert Byer, a co-author of the Science paper. Again, it’s a matter of size.

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Dec 28, 2019

Detecting the Origin of Cancer‐Mobile Quantum Probe for Single Cancer Stem Cell Detection

Posted by in categories: chemistry, quantum physics

Cancer stem cells (CSC) are believed to be the driving force of cancer metastases and are a rare population of self‐renewing cells that contribute majorly to the poor outcomes of cancer therapy. The detection of CSC is of utmost importance to shed light on the indestructible nature of certain solid tumors and their metastatic ability. However, tumors tend to harbor CSCs in a specialized niche, making the detection process difficult. Currently, there is no method available to detect CSCs. The significance of this work is twofold. First, to the best of the knowledge, it is the first time that the detection of CSC is demonstrated. This approach simultaneously detects both the phenotypic and the metabolic state of the cell, thus enabling universal detection of CSC with high accuracy. Second, to the best of the knowledge, for the first time, light is shed on cell chemistry of CSC in their dedicated niche to facilitate a better understanding of the key players involved in the metabolic rewiring of CSC. This work will enable a better understanding of the fundamentals of CSCs, which are critical for the early diagnosis of cancer and the development of therapies for the cure of cancer.

Dec 22, 2019

Polina Mamoshina — The Beginning of an AI Healthcare Revolution

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, bitcoin, chemistry, genetics, life extension, robotics/AI

From insilico meddicine — the beginning of an AI healthcare revolution.

Poly Mamoshina on Machine Learning for small molecule drug discovery and the beginning of an AI healthcare revolution — interviewed at the Undoing Aging conference in Berlin 2019!

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