Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 6

Jan 16, 2024

Defying Current Theories of Superconductivity — “Sudden Death” of Quantum Fluctuations Stuns Scientists

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Princeton physicists have uncovered a groundbreaking quantum phase transition in superconductivity, challenging established theories and highlighting the need for new approaches to understanding quantum mechanics in solids.

Princeton physicists have discovered an abrupt change in quantum behavior while experimenting with a three-atom.

An atom is the smallest component of an element. It is made up of protons and neutrons within the nucleus, and electrons circling the nucleus.

Jan 16, 2024

Physicists Announce a Breakthrough in Quantum Coherence at Room Temperature

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics, space

Heat is the enemy of quantum uncertainty. By arranging light-absorbing molecules in an ordered fashion, physicists in Japan have maintained the critical, yet-to-be-determined state of electron spins for 100 nanoseconds near room temperature.

The innovation could have a profound impact on progress in developing quantum technology that doesn’t rely on the bulky and expensive cooling equipment currently needed to keep particles in a so-called ‘coherent’ form.

Unlike the way we describe objects in our day-to-day living, which have qualities like color, position, speed, and rotation, quantum descriptions of objects involve something less settled. Until their characteristics are locked in place with a quick look, we have to treat objects as if they are smeared over a wide space, spinning in different directions, yet to adopt a simple measurement.

Jan 16, 2024

Karlheinz Meier — Neuromorphic Computing — Extreme Approaches to weak and strong scaling

Posted by in categories: biological, neuroscience, particle physics, robotics/AI

Computer simulations of complex systems provide an opportunity to study their time evolution under user control. Simulations of neural circuits are an established tool in computational neuroscience. Through systematic simplification on spatial and temporal scales they provide important insights in the time evolution of networks which in turn leads to an improved understanding of brain functions like learning, memory or behavior. Simulations of large networks are exploiting the concept of weak scaling where the massively parallel biological network structure is naturally mapped on computers with very large numbers of compute nodes. However, this approach is suffering from fundamental limitations. The power consumption is approaching prohibitive levels and, more seriously, the bridging of time-scales from millisecond to years, present in the neurobiology of plasticity, learning and development is inaccessible to classical computers. In the keynote I will argue that these limitations can be overcome by extreme approaches to weak and strong scaling based on brain-inspired computing architectures.

Bio: Karlheinz Meier received his PhD in physics in 1984 from Hamburg University in Germany. He has more than 25years of experience in experimental particle physics with contributions to 4 major experiments at particle colliders at DESY in Hamburg and CERN in Geneva. For the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) he led a 15 year effort to design, build and operate an electronics data processing system providing on-the-fly data reduction by 3 orders of magnitude enabling among other achievements the discovery of the Higgs Boson. Following scientific staff positions at DESY and CERN he was appointed full professor of physics at Heidelberg university in 1992. In Heidelberg he co-founded the Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics and a laboratory for the development of microelectronic circuits for science experiments. In particle physics he took a leading international role in shaping the future of the field as president of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA). Around 2005 he gradually shifted his scientific interests towards large-scale electronic implementations of brain-inspired computer architectures. His group pioneered several innovations in the field like the conception of a description language for neural circuits (PyNN), time-compressed mixed-signal neuromorphic computing systems and wafer-scale integration for their implementation. He led 2 major European initiatives, FACETS and BrainScaleS, that both demonstrated the rewarding interdisciplinary collaboration of neuroscience and information science. In 2009 he was one of the initiators of the European Human Brain Project (HBP) that was approved in 2013. In the HBP he leads the subproject on neuromorphic computing with the goal of establishing brain-inspired computing paradigms as tools for neuroscience and generic methods for inference from large data volumes.

Jan 16, 2024

Quantum entanglement discovery is a revolutionary step forward

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A team of researchers from the Structured Light Laboratory at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, has made a significant breakthrough regarding quantum entanglement.

Led by Professor Andrew Forbes, in collaboration with renowned string theorist Robert de Mello Koch, now at Huzhou University in China, the team has successfully demonstrated a novel method to manipulate quantum entangled particles without altering their intrinsic properties.

This feat marks a monumental step in our understanding and application of quantum entanglement.

Jan 15, 2024

A new approach to realize highly efficient, high-dimensional quantum memories

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Many physicists and engineers have been trying to develop highly efficient quantum technologies that can perform similar functions to conventional electronics leveraging quantum mechanical effects. This includes high-dimensional quantum memories, storage devices with a greater information capacity and noise resilience than two-dimensional quantum memories.

So far, developing these high-dimensional memories has proved challenging, and most attempts have not yielded satisfactory efficiencies. In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, a research team at University of Science and Technology of China and Hefei Normal University recently introduced an approach to realize a highly efficient 25-dimensional based on cold atoms.

“Our group has been using the orbital angular momentum mode in the space channel to study high-dimensional quantum and has accumulated a wealth of research experience and technology,” Dong Sheng Ding, co-author of the paper, told “Achieving high-dimensional and high-efficiency quantum storage has always been our goal.”

Jan 15, 2024

The Future of Magnetism: Scientists Unveil Secrets of Electromagnons

Posted by in categories: futurism, particle physics

Scientists have uncovered the interaction between lattice vibrations and spins in a hybrid excitation called an electromagnon, using a unique combination of experiments at the SwissFEL X-ray free electron laser. This discovery at the atomic level paves the way for ultrafast manipulation of magnetism using light.

Within the atomic lattice of a solid, particles and their various properties cooperate in wave like motions known as collective excitations. When atoms in a lattice jiggle together, the collective excitation is known as a phonon. Similarly, when the atomic spins – the magnetisation of the atoms-move together, it’s known as a magnon.

The situation gets more complex. Some of these collective excitations talk to each other in so-called hybrid excitations. One such hybrid excitation is an electromagnon. Electromagnons get their name because of the ability to excite the atomic spins using the electric field of light, in contrast to conventional magnons: an exciting prospect for numerous technical applications. Yet their secret life at an atomic level is not well understood.

Jan 15, 2024

The tale of two clocks: Advancing the precision of timekeeping

Posted by in category: particle physics

Historically, JILA (a joint institute established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology [NIST] and the University of Colorado Boulder) has been a world leader in precision timekeeping using optical atomic clocks. These clocks harness the intrinsic properties of atoms to measure time with unparalleled precision and accuracy, representing a significant leap in our quest to quantify the most elusive of dimensions: time.

Jan 15, 2024

How a forgotten physicist’s discovery broke the symmetry of the Universe

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

When Rosemary Brown identified a strange particle decay 75 years ago, it set events in motion that would rewrite the laws of physics.

Jan 14, 2024

Quantum mechanics uncovers hidden patterns in the stock market

Posted by in categories: economics, finance, particle physics, quantum physics

In the ever-evolving world of financial markets, understanding the unpredictable nature of stock market fluctuations is crucial. A new study has taken a leap in this field by developing an innovative quantum mechanics model to analyze the stock market.

This model not only encompasses economic uncertainty and investor behavior but also aims to unravel the mysteries behind stock market anomalies like fat tails, volatility clustering, and contrarian effects.

The core of this model is quantum mechanics, a pillar of physics known for explaining the behavior of subatomic particles.

Jan 13, 2024

Dissecting the Quantum Illusion: Debunking the Cheshire Cat Effect

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

What actually happens is much weirder, and may help us understand more about quantum mechanics.

The quantum Cheshire cat effect draws its name from the fictional Cheshire Cat in the Alice in Wonderland story. That cat was able to disappear, leaving only its grin behind. Similarly, in a 2013 paper, researchers claimed quantum particles are able to separate from their properties, with the properties traveling along paths the particle cannot. They named this the quantum Cheshire cat effect. Researchers since have claimed to extend this further, swapping disembodied properties between particles, disembodying multiple properties simultaneously, and even “separating the wave-particle duality” of a particle.

Contextuality in Quantum Mechanics.

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