Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 5

Apr 14, 2024

Exploring Quantum Teleportation: Qubit Transfer With Exotic Entangled States

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Quantum teleportation is a process by which quantum information can be transmitted from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location. This process is not to be confused with teleportation as depicted in science fiction, where matter is instantaneously transported from one location to another. Instead, quantum teleportation involves the transfer of quantum states between particles at different locations without any physical movement of the particles themselves.

In a recent study by Isiaka Aremua and Laure Gouba, the researchers explored the teleportation of a qubit using exotic entangled coherent states. A qubit, or quantum bit, is the basic unit of quantum information. It is a quantum system that can exist in any superposition of its two basis states. The researchers used a system of an electron moving on a plane in uniform external magnetic and electric fields to construct different classes of coherent states.

Coherent states are specific states of a quantum harmonic oscillator. They are often described as the quantum equivalent of classical states because they closely resemble the behavior of classical particles. In the context of quantum teleportation, coherent states are used to form entangled states, which are crucial for the teleportation process.

Apr 13, 2024

Are Fundamental Constants Fundamental? | Peter Atkins and Jim Baggott

Posted by in categories: business, chemistry, education, particle physics, quantum physics

Peter Atkins discusses the ideas in his book ‘Conjuring the Universe’ with fellow science writer Jim Baggott. They discuss how fundamental the various constants of the universe truly are.

Continue reading “Are Fundamental Constants Fundamental? | Peter Atkins and Jim Baggott” »

Apr 13, 2024

This is our Muon Shot

Posted by in categories: futurism, particle physics

In December, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel, called P5, released its recommendations for the future of the field, based on the input from the Snowmass process.

The US physics community dreams of building a muon collider.

Apr 12, 2024

BepiColombo Mission Offers New Insights into Venus’s Atmospheric Loss

Posted by in categories: evolution, particle physics, space

How much of Venus’s atmosphere is being stripped by the Sun, and what can this tell us about how the planet lost its water long ago? This is what a recent study published in Nature Astronomy hopes to address as a team of international researchers examined data obtained from a 2021 Venus flyby by the BepiColombo spacecraft, which is a joint mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA) currently en route to Mercury. This study holds the potential to help researchers better understand the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres, both within our solar system and beyond.

“Characterizing the loss of heavy ions and understanding the escape mechanisms at Venus is crucial to understand how the planet’s atmosphere has evolved and how it has lost all its water,” said Dr. Dominique Delcourt, who is a CNRS researcher at the Plasma Physics Laboratory (LPP) and the Principal Investigator of the Mass Spectrum Analyzer (MSA) instrument onboard BepiColombo, and a co-author on the study.

During its journey to Mercury, BepiColombo needs to conduct several gravity assists to slow down enough to enter Mercury’s orbit, with one such gravity assist occurring at Venus on August 10, 2021. During this flyby, BepiColombo passed through Venus’s magnetosheath, which is Venus’s version of a weak magnetic field that is produced by charged particles from the Sun interacting with Venus’s upper atmosphere. Over the course of 90 minutes, BepiColombo and its powerful instruments successfully measured data on how much atmospheric loss Venus is currently experiencing, which could help researchers better understand the formation and evolution of Venus’s atmosphere, and specifically how the planet lost its water long ago.

Apr 12, 2024

Novel Quantum Effect Observed in a Crystalline Material

Posted by in categories: engineering, particle physics, quantum physics

Physicists have observed a novel quantum effect termed “hybrid topology” in a crystalline material. This finding opens up a new range of possibilities for the development of efficient materials and technologies for next-generation quantum science and engineering.

The finding, published on April 10th in the journal Natur e, came when Princeton scientists discovered that an elemental solid crystal made of arsenic (As) atoms hosts a never-before-observed form of topological quantum behavior. They were able to explore and image this novel quantum state using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and photoemission spectroscopy, the latter a technique used to determine the relative energy of electrons in molecules and atoms.

This state combines, or “hybridizes,” two forms of topological quantum behavior—edge states and surface states, which are two types of quantum two-dimensional electron systems. These have been observed in previous experiments, but never simultaneously in the same material where they mix to form a new state of matter.

Apr 12, 2024

Evidence of a new subatomic particle observed

Posted by in category: particle physics

The BESIII collaboration have reported the observation of an anomalous line shape around ppbar mass threshold in the J/ψ→γ3(π+π-) decay, which indicates the existence of a ppbar bound state. The paper was published online in Physical Review Letters.

Apr 12, 2024

Light makes atoms behave like electromagnetic coils

Posted by in category: particle physics

Microscopic magnetic fields induced by rotating atoms.

Apr 12, 2024

Light-Matter Particle Breakthrough Could Change Displays Forever

Posted by in categories: innovation, particle physics

POSTECH researchers have created a technique for controlling polaritons, which could lead to advancements in optical displays and various optoelectronic devices.

A research team consisting of Professor Kyoung-Duck Park and Hyeongwoo Lee, an integrated PhD student, from the Department of Physics at Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) has pioneered an innovative technique in ultra-high-resolution spectroscopy. Their breakthrough marks the world’s first instance of electrically controlling polaritons—hybridized light-matter particles—at room temperature.

Novel Characteristics of Polaritons.

Apr 11, 2024

Physicists Capture First-Ever Image of an Electron Crystal

Posted by in category: particle physics

The findings affirm a 90-year-old theory about how electrons can assemble without atoms.

Apr 11, 2024

How to Speed up a Quantum Network

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

A future quantum network of optical fibers will likely maintain communication between distant quantum computers. Sending quantum information rapidly across long distances has proved difficult, in part because most photons don’t survive the trip. Now Viktor Krutyanskiy of the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and his colleagues have more than doubled the success rate for sending photons that are quantum mechanically entangled with atoms to a distant site [1]. Instead of the previous approach of sending photons one at a time and waiting to see if each one arrives successfully, the researchers sent photons in groups of three. They believe that sending photons in larger numbers should be feasible in the future, allowing much faster transmission of quantum information.

Quantum networks require entanglement distribution, which involves sending a photon entangled with a local qubit to a distant location. The distribution system must check for the arrival and for the entanglement of each photon at the remote site before another attempt can be made, which can be time consuming. For a 100-km-long fiber, the light travel time combined with losses in the fiber and other inefficiencies limit the rate for this process to about one successful photon transfer per second using state-of-the-art equipment.

For faster distribution, Krutyanskiy and his colleagues trapped three calcium ions (qubits) in an optical cavity and performed repeated rounds of their protocol: in rapid sequence, each ion was triggered to emit an entangled photon that was sent down a 101-km-long, spooled optical fiber. In one experiment, the team performed nearly 900,000 of these “attempts,” detecting entangled photons at the far end 1906 times. The effective success rate came out to 2.9 per second. The team’s single-ion success rate was 1.2 per second.

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