Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 18

Feb 28, 2023

We Just Got The Most Precise Measurement of a Property of a Particle, Ever

Posted by in category: particle physics

The Standard Model of particle physics is our current best-guess on what the blue-prints for matter looks like. Of all of its predictions, none are as precise as the magnetic moment of the electron.

Not only is it precisely predicted, it’s among the most accurately measured of any particle’s properties. And while these two values are close, they don’t overlap entirely, providing tantalizing hints of new physics.

Getting closer to the exact value of the electron magnetic moment – simply put, how strongly an electron behaves like a tiny magnet – might one day unlock a greater understanding of the building blocks of physics and how they interact.

Feb 28, 2023

Liquid nitrogen spray could clean up stubborn moon dust

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

A liquid nitrogen spray developed by Washington State University researchers can remove almost all of the simulated moon dust from a space suit, potentially solving what is a significant challenge for future moon-landing astronauts.

The sprayer removed more than 98% of moon dust simulant in a vacuum environment with minimal damage to spacesuits, performing better than any techniques that have been investigated previously. The researchers report on their work in the journal, Acta Astronautica.

While people have managed to put men on the moon, they haven’t figured out how to keep them clean there. Similar to the clingiest packaging peanuts, moon dust sticks to everything that it touches. Worse than the packing peanuts, the dust is composed of very fine particles that are the consistency of ground fiberglass.

Feb 28, 2023

Breakthrough in Understanding Quark-Gluon Plasma, the Primordial Form of Matter in the Early Universe

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

The properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP), the primordial form of matter in the early universe, is conventionally described using relativistic hydrodynamical models. However, these models predict low particle yields in the low transverse momentum region, which is at odds with experimental data. To address this discrepancy, researchers from Japan now propose a novel framework based on a “core-corona” picture of QGP, which predicts that the corona component may contribute to the observed high particle yields.

Research in fundamental science has revealed the existence of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) – a newly identified state of matter – as the constituent of the early universe. Known to have existed a microsecond after the Big Bang, the QGP, essentially a soup of quarks and gluons, cooled down with time to form hadrons like protons and neutrons – the building blocks of all matter. One way to reproduce the extreme conditions prevailing when QGP existed is through relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this regard, particle accelerator facilities like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have furthered our understanding of QGP with experimental data pertaining to such collisions.

Meanwhile, theoretical physicists have employed multistage relativistic hydrodynamic models to explain the data, since the QGP behaves very much like a perfect fluid. However, there has been a serious lingering disagreement between these models and data in the region of low transverse momentum, where both the conventional and hybrid models have failed to explain the particle yields observed in the experiments.

Feb 27, 2023

Researchers uncover new water monitoring technique

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, engineering, particle physics, sustainability

Water is a vital resource, and clean water is a necessity. Texas A&M University researchers have developed a new technique to monitor one of the key processes of purifying water in real time.

Raw water contains microscopic pathogens that are too small to remove during water and easily. Chemicals are added to form large clumps called flocs, which are easily filtered out. Flocculation is the process used in water treatment to remove suspended particles from the water.

“Coagulant chemicals need to be added to purify drinking water and remove turbidity (cloudiness) and microbes that are too small to be visible to the ,” said Dr. Kuang-An Chang, professor in the Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Texas A&M.

Feb 27, 2023

Strong microwave magnetic fields for more efficient plasmas

Posted by in categories: chemistry, particle physics

Hot gases composed of metal ions and electrons, called plasmas, are widely used in many manufacturing processes, chemical synthesis, and metal extraction from ores and welding. A collaborative research group from Tohoku University and the Toyohashi University of Technology has invented a new and efficient method to create metallic plasmas from solid metals under a strong magnetic field in a microwave resonator. They report their innovation in the journal AIP Advances.

In the most conventional methods for making plasmas, a strong electric field is applied to gases or liquids. This can require enormous amounts of energy. More recently, has also been harnessed to generate plasmas as it converts atoms into a form that can more effectively drive desired , among other advantages. The plasmas generated by microwaves are now being used in commercial processes, including semiconductor manufacture, diamond deposition and to release metals from their ores.

Until now, however, this has involved multi-mode microwave generators, which generate a chaotic distribution of microwaves. One key advance achieved by the team is to apply a single-mode microwave generator to produce their metal plasmas. This creates more controlled and highly focused microwaves.

Feb 27, 2023

Recognizing a clear sign that quark-gluon plasma production ‘turns off’ at low energy

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, particle physics

Physicists report new evidence that production of an exotic state of matter in collisions of gold nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)—an atom-smasher at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory—can be “turned off” by lowering the collision energy. The “off” signal shows up as a sign change—from negative to positive—in data that describe “higher order” characteristics of the distribution of protons produced in these collisions.

The findings, just published by RHIC’s STAR Collaboration in Physical Review Letters, will help physicists map out the conditions of temperature and density under which the exotic matter, known as a quark-gluon plasma (QGP), can exist and identify key features of the phases of nuclear matter.

Generating and studying QGP has been a central goal of research at RHIC. Since the collider began operating in 2000, a wide range of measurements have shown that the most energetic smashups of atomic nuclei—at 200 billion electron volts (GeV)— melt the boundaries of protons and neutrons to set free, for a fleeting instant, the quarks and gluons that make up ordinary nuclear particles.

Feb 27, 2023

Scientists Prove Validity of Key Physics Theorem in the Quantum World

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

The physicists at the University of Bonn have experimentally demonstrated that a crucial theorem in statistical physics is applicable to Bose-Einstein condensates. This discovery enables the measurement of specific properties of these quantum “superparticles,” providing a means of deducing system characteristics that would otherwise be challenging to observe. The findings of this study have been published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Suppose in front of you there is a container filled with an unknown liquid. Your goal is to find out by how much the particles in it (atoms or molecules) move back and forth randomly due to their thermal energy. However, you do not have a microscope with which you could visualize these position fluctuations known as “Brownian motion”.

It turns out you do not need that at all: You can also simply tie an object to a string and pull it through the liquid. The more force you have to apply, the more viscous your liquid. And the more viscous it is, the lesser the particles in the liquid change their position on average. The viscosity at a given temperature can therefore be used to predict the extent of the fluctuations.

Feb 27, 2023

Quantum Holography from Fermion Fields

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

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In this paper, we demonstrate, in the context of Loop Quantum Gravity, the Quantum Holographic Principle, according to which the area of the boundary surface enclosing a region of space encodes a qubit per Planck unit. To this aim, we introduce fermion fields in the bulk, whose boundary surface is the two-dimensional sphere. The doubling of the fermionic degrees of freedom and the use of the Bogolyubov transformations lead to pairs of the spin network’s edges piercing the boundary surface with double punctures, giving rise to pixels of area encoding a qubit. The proof is also valid in the case of a fuzzy sphere.

Feb 27, 2023

Researchers Say They Managed to Pull Quantum Energy From a Vacuum

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A team of physicists claims to have pulled energy out of a vacuum, Quanta reports — a trick that required them to teleport it from a different location using quantum tech.

The work builds on previous research by Tohoku University theoretical physicist Masahiro Hotta, who back in 2008 claimed to have found a way to produce negative energy, a seemingly counterintuitive aspect of quantum theory, inside a quantum vacuum.

In simple terms, instead of extracting something from nothing, the energy was “borrowed” from somewhere else, taking advantage of the idea of quantum entanglement, the fact that two subatomic particles can change their state in line with the other, even when the two are separated by a distance.

Feb 27, 2023

We finally know why Saturn moon shoots silica into space

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

“Enceladus is giving us free samples of what’s hidden deep below.”

Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus shoots particles of frozen silica into space, and scientists might finally know why. Scientists have long known that Enceladus spewed out icy silica that eventually made its way into Saturn’s E ring, but they didn’t have a good explanation as to why this was happening.

Now, a new study by a team at the University of California Los Angeles might provide the answer. Their research shows that tidal heating in Encealadus’ rocky core creates currents that push the silica to the surface. Once there, it’s likely released into space by deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

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