Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 11

Oct 7, 2023

Scientists create a novel quantum platform using atoms

Posted by in categories: computing, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum physics

The method is still at its basic stage but multiple such microscopes could be pooled up to build a larger quantum computer.

Researchers at the IBS Center for Quantum Nanoscience (QNS) in Seoul, South Korea, have successfully demonstrated using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to perform quantum computation using electrons as qubits, a press release said.

Quantum computing is usually associated with terms such as atom traps or superconductors that aid in isolating quantum states or qubits that serve as a basic unit of information. In many ways, everything in nature is quantum and can be used to perform quantum computations as long as we can isolate its quantum states.

Oct 7, 2023

Pulsars may make dark matter glow

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

The central question in the ongoing hunt for dark matter is: what is it made of? One possible answer is that dark matter consists of particles known as axions. A team of astrophysicists, led by researchers from the universities of Amsterdam and Princeton, has now shown that if dark matter consists of axions, it may reveal itself in the form of a subtle additional glow coming from pulsating stars. Their work is published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Dark matter may be the most sought-for constituent of our universe. Surprisingly, this mysterious form of matter, that physicist and astronomers so far have not been able to detect, is assumed to make up an enormous part of what is out there.

No less than 85% of matter in the universe is suspected to be “dark,” presently only noticeable through the gravitational pull it exerts on other astronomical objects. Understandably, scientists want more. They want to really see dark matter—or at the very least, detect its presence directly, not just infer it from gravitational effects. And, of course: they want to know what it is.

Oct 6, 2023

Alfvén waves: unlocking unlimited clean energy for the Earth

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, particle physics

Researchers of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) announced the discovery of a promising approach to mitigate the damaging effects of runaway electrons in tokamak fusion devices in a statement.

The key to this discovery lies in harnessing a unique type of plasma wave known as Alfvén waves, named after the renowned astrophysicist Hannes Alfvén, a Nobel laureate in 1970.

Alfvén waves have long been recognized for their ability to loosen the confinement of high-energy particles within tokamak reactors— a type of fusion reactor that confines plasma in the shape of a donut using a magnetic field.

Oct 6, 2023

Quantum Leap: Physicists Successfully Simulate Super Diffusion

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Quantum physicists have simulated super diffusion in quantum particles on a quantum computer, paving the way for deeper insights into condensed matter physics and materials science. This achievement, realized on a 27-qubit system programmed remotely from Dublin, emphasizes the potential of quantum computing in both commercial and fundamental physics inquiries.

Quantum physicists at Trinity, working alongside IBM Dublin, have successfully simulated super diffusion in a system of interacting quantum particles on a quantum computer.

This is the first step in doing highly challenging quantum transport calculations on quantum hardware and, as the hardware improves over time, such work promises to shed new light in condensed matter physics and materials science.

Oct 6, 2023

New kind of quantum computer made using high-resolution microscope

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Physicists have performed the first quantum calculations to be carried out using individual atoms sitting on a surface.

The technique, described on 5 October in Science1, controls titanium atoms by beaming microwave signals from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). It is unlikely to compete any time soon with the leading approaches to quantum computing, including those adopted by Google and IBM, as well as by many start-up companies. But the tactic could be used to study quantum properties in a variety of other chemical elements or even molecules, say the researchers who developed it.

At some level, everything in nature is quantum and can, in principle, perform quantum computations. The hard part is to isolate quantum states called qubits — the quantum equivalent of the memory bits in a classical computer — from environmental disturbances, and to control them finely enough for such calculations to be achieved.

Oct 6, 2023

Controlling Hydrogen Isotopes with Graphene

Posted by in categories: engineering, nuclear energy, particle physics

face_with_colon_three Year 2017

A paper recently published in the journal Nuclear Engineering and Technology demonstrated the feasibility of using graphene to control hydrogen isotopes, specifically tritium.

Study: Adsorption of Hydrogen Isotopes on Graphene. Image Credit: Rost9/

Continue reading “Controlling Hydrogen Isotopes with Graphene” »

Oct 5, 2023

Quantum repeaters use defects in diamond to interconnect quantum systems

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, particle physics, quantum physics

Ben Dixon, a researcher in the Optical and Quantum Communications Technology Group, explains how the process works: “First, you need to generate pairs of specific entangled qubits (called Bell states) and transmit them in different directions across the network link to two separate quantum repeaters, which capture and store these qubits. One of the quantum repeaters then does a two-qubit measurement between the transmitted and stored qubit and an arbitrary qubit that we want to send across the link in order to interconnect the remote quantum systems. The measurement results are communicated to the quantum repeater at the other end of the link; the repeater uses these results to turn the stored Bell state qubit into the arbitrary qubit. Lastly, the repeater can send the arbitrary qubit into the quantum system, thereby linking the two remote quantum systems.”

To retain the entangled states, the quantum repeater needs a way to store them — in essence, a memory. In 2020, collaborators at Harvard University demonstrated holding a qubit in a single silicon atom (trapped between two empty spaces left behind by removing two carbon atoms) in diamond. This silicon “vacancy” center in diamond is an attractive quantum memory option. Like other individual electrons, the outermost (valence) electron on the silicon atom can point either up or down, similar to a bar magnet with north and south poles. The direction that the electron points is known as its spin, and the two possible spin states, spin up or spin down, are akin to the ones and zeros used by computers to represent, process, and store information. Moreover, silicon’s valence electron can be manipulated with visible light to transfer and store a photonic qubit in the electron spin state. The Harvard researchers did exactly this; they patterned an optical waveguide (a structure that guides light in a desired direction) surrounded by a nanophotonic optical cavity to have a photon strongly interact with the silicon atom and impart its quantum state onto that atom. Collaborators at MIT then showed this basic functionality could work with multiple waveguides; they patterned eight waveguides and successfully generated silicon vacancies inside them all.

Lincoln Laboratory has since been applying quantum engineering to create a quantum memory module equipped with additional capabilities to operate as a quantum repeater. This engineering effort includes on-site custom diamond growth (with the Quantum Information and Integrated Nanosystems Group); the development of a scalable silicon-nanophotonics interposer (a chip that merges photonic and electronic functionalities) to control the silicon-vacancy qubit; and integration and packaging of the components into a system that can be cooled to the cryogenic temperatures needed for long-term memory storage. The current system has two memory modules, each capable of holding eight optical qubits.

Oct 5, 2023

No-heat quantum engine makes its debut

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers demonstrate a prototype engine powered by the quantum statistics of bosons and fermions.

Oct 4, 2023

From Atoms to Organisms: “Assembly Theory” Unifies Physics and Biology To Explain Evolution and Complexity

Posted by in categories: biological, evolution, particle physics

“Assembly Theory,” a pioneering theoretical framework bridging physics and biology, offers transformative insights into biological evolution and its place within universal physical laws. With applications from…

Oct 4, 2023

Nobel prize in physics awarded for work unveiling the secrets of electrons

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

The 2023 Nobel prize in physics has been awarded to a trio of scientists for pioneering tools used to study the world of electrons.

Electrons are sub-atomic particles that play a role in many phenomena we see every day, from electricity to magnetism. This year’s three Nobel physics laureates demonstrated a way to create extremely short pulses of light in order to investigate processes that involve electrons.

Pierre Agostini from The Ohio State University in the US, Ferenc Krausz from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Germany and Anne L’Huillier from Lund University in Sweden will share the prize sum of 11 million Swedish kronor (£822,910).

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