Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category

Apr 14, 2024

The Quest to Map the Inside of the Proton

Posted by in category: particle physics

Long-anticipated experiments that use light to mimic gravity are revealing the distribution of energies, forces, and pressures inside a subatomic particle for the first time.

Apr 14, 2024

Photonic Quantum Computing: A Promising Future With Mature Technologies And Room-Temperature Operations

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Photonic quantum computation, a type of quantum computation that uses light particles or photons, is divided into two main categories: discrete-variable (DV) and continuous-variable (CV) photonic quantum computation. Both have been realized experimentally and can be combined to overcome individual limitations. Photonic quantum computation is important as it can perform specific computational tasks more efficiently. It has several advantages, including the ability to observe and engineer quantum phenomena at room temperature, maintain coherence, and be engineered using mature technologies. The future of photonic quantum computing looks promising due to the significant progress in photonic technology.

Photonic quantum computation is a type of quantum computation that uses photons, particles of light, as the physical system for performing the computation. Photons are ideal for quantum systems because they operate at room temperature and photonic technologies are relatively mature. The field of photonic quantum computation is divided into two main categories: discrete-variable (DV) and continuous-variable (CV) photonic quantum computation.

In DV photonic quantum computation, quantum information is represented by one or more modal properties, such as polarization, that take on distinct values from a finite set. Quantum information is processed via operations on these modal properties and eventually measured using single photon detectors. On the other hand, in CV photonic quantum computation, quantum information is represented by properties of the electromagnetic field that take on any value in an interval, such as position. The electromagnetic field is transformed via Gaussian and non-Gaussian operations and then detected via homodyne detection.

Apr 14, 2024

Peter Higgs transformed what we know about the building blocks of the universe

Posted by in category: particle physics

Peter Higgs, who gave his name to the subatomic particle known as the Higgs boson, has died aged 94. He was always a modest man, especially when considering that he was one of the greats of particle physics—the area of science concerned with the building blocks of matter.

Apr 14, 2024

Exploring Quantum Teleportation: Qubit Transfer With Exotic Entangled States

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Quantum teleportation is a process by which quantum information can be transmitted from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location. This process is not to be confused with teleportation as depicted in science fiction, where matter is instantaneously transported from one location to another. Instead, quantum teleportation involves the transfer of quantum states between particles at different locations without any physical movement of the particles themselves.

In a recent study by Isiaka Aremua and Laure Gouba, the researchers explored the teleportation of a qubit using exotic entangled coherent states. A qubit, or quantum bit, is the basic unit of quantum information. It is a quantum system that can exist in any superposition of its two basis states. The researchers used a system of an electron moving on a plane in uniform external magnetic and electric fields to construct different classes of coherent states.

Coherent states are specific states of a quantum harmonic oscillator. They are often described as the quantum equivalent of classical states because they closely resemble the behavior of classical particles. In the context of quantum teleportation, coherent states are used to form entangled states, which are crucial for the teleportation process.

Apr 13, 2024

Are Fundamental Constants Fundamental? | Peter Atkins and Jim Baggott

Posted by in categories: business, chemistry, education, particle physics, quantum physics

Peter Atkins discusses the ideas in his book ‘Conjuring the Universe’ with fellow science writer Jim Baggott. They discuss how fundamental the various constants of the universe truly are.

Continue reading “Are Fundamental Constants Fundamental? | Peter Atkins and Jim Baggott” »

Apr 13, 2024

This is our Muon Shot

Posted by in categories: futurism, particle physics

In December, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel, called P5, released its recommendations for the future of the field, based on the input from the Snowmass process.

The US physics community dreams of building a muon collider.

Apr 12, 2024

BepiColombo Mission Offers New Insights into Venus’s Atmospheric Loss

Posted by in categories: evolution, particle physics, space

How much of Venus’s atmosphere is being stripped by the Sun, and what can this tell us about how the planet lost its water long ago? This is what a recent study published in Nature Astronomy hopes to address as a team of international researchers examined data obtained from a 2021 Venus flyby by the BepiColombo spacecraft, which is a joint mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA) currently en route to Mercury. This study holds the potential to help researchers better understand the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres, both within our solar system and beyond.

“Characterizing the loss of heavy ions and understanding the escape mechanisms at Venus is crucial to understand how the planet’s atmosphere has evolved and how it has lost all its water,” said Dr. Dominique Delcourt, who is a CNRS researcher at the Plasma Physics Laboratory (LPP) and the Principal Investigator of the Mass Spectrum Analyzer (MSA) instrument onboard BepiColombo, and a co-author on the study.

During its journey to Mercury, BepiColombo needs to conduct several gravity assists to slow down enough to enter Mercury’s orbit, with one such gravity assist occurring at Venus on August 10, 2021. During this flyby, BepiColombo passed through Venus’s magnetosheath, which is Venus’s version of a weak magnetic field that is produced by charged particles from the Sun interacting with Venus’s upper atmosphere. Over the course of 90 minutes, BepiColombo and its powerful instruments successfully measured data on how much atmospheric loss Venus is currently experiencing, which could help researchers better understand the formation and evolution of Venus’s atmosphere, and specifically how the planet lost its water long ago.

Apr 12, 2024

Novel Quantum Effect Observed in a Crystalline Material

Posted by in categories: engineering, particle physics, quantum physics

Physicists have observed a novel quantum effect termed “hybrid topology” in a crystalline material. This finding opens up a new range of possibilities for the development of efficient materials and technologies for next-generation quantum science and engineering.

The finding, published on April 10th in the journal Natur e, came when Princeton scientists discovered that an elemental solid crystal made of arsenic (As) atoms hosts a never-before-observed form of topological quantum behavior. They were able to explore and image this novel quantum state using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and photoemission spectroscopy, the latter a technique used to determine the relative energy of electrons in molecules and atoms.

This state combines, or “hybridizes,” two forms of topological quantum behavior—edge states and surface states, which are two types of quantum two-dimensional electron systems. These have been observed in previous experiments, but never simultaneously in the same material where they mix to form a new state of matter.

Apr 12, 2024

Evidence of a new subatomic particle observed

Posted by in category: particle physics

The BESIII collaboration have reported the observation of an anomalous line shape around ppbar mass threshold in the J/ψ→γ3(π+π-) decay, which indicates the existence of a ppbar bound state. The paper was published online in Physical Review Letters.

Apr 12, 2024

Light makes atoms behave like electromagnetic coils

Posted by in category: particle physics

Microscopic magnetic fields induced by rotating atoms.

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