Archive for the ‘mathematics’ category: Page 5

May 22, 2021

Dr. Missy Cummings, Ph.D — Professor, Duke University — Director, Humans and Autonomy Laboratory

Posted by in categories: drones, mathematics, military, policy, robotics/AI

Engineering A Safer World For Humans With Self Driving Cars, Drones, and Robots — Dr. Missy Cummings PhD, Professor, Duke University, Director, Humans and Autonomy Laboratory, Duke Engineering.

Dr. Mary “Missy” Cummings, is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, at the Pratt School of Engineering, at Duke University, the Duke Institute of Brain Sciences, and is the Director of the Humans and Autonomy Laboratory and Duke Robotics.

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May 1, 2021

Artificial Intelligence Algorithm Helps Unravel the Physics Underlying Quantum Systems

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics, robotics/AI

Protocol to reverse engineer Hamiltonian models advances automation of quantum devices.

Scientists from the University of Bristol ’s Quantum Engineering Technology Labs (QETLabs) have developed an algorithm that provides valuable insights into the physics underlying quantum systems — paving the way for significant advances in quantum computation and sensing, and potentially turning a new page in scientific investigation.

In physics, systems of particles and their evolution are described by mathematical models, requiring the successful interplay of theoretical arguments and experimental verification. Even more complex is the description of systems of particles interacting with each other at the quantum mechanical level, which is often done using a Hamiltonian model. The process of formulating Hamiltonian models from observations is made even harder by the nature of quantum states, which collapse when attempts are made to inspect them.

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Apr 30, 2021

Jasmijn Kok — Juno Perinatal Healthcare — Artificial Womb Technology For Extremely Preterm Infants

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, mathematics

Artificial womb technology for extremely preterm infants — jasmijn kok, juno perinatal healthcare.

Every year, 800000 babies are born extremely preterm (defined as less than 28 weeks of age) worldwide. These infants are usually transferred to an air-based neonatal intensive care unit to support their heart and lung development. Exposure to air, however, leads to many complications, because the lungs are not fully developed yet.

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Apr 28, 2021

New Artificial Neuron Device Runs Neural Network Computations Using 100 to 1000 Times Less Energy

Posted by in categories: mathematics, robotics/AI, transportation

Training neural networks to perform tasks, such as recognizing images or navigating self-driving cars, could one day require less computing power and hardware thanks to a new artificial neuron device developed by researchers at the University of California San Diego. The device can run neural network computations using 100 to 1000 times less energy and area than existing CMOS-based hardware.

Researchers report their work in a paper published recently in Nature Nanotechnology.

Neural networks are a series of connected layers of artificial neurons, where the output of one layer provides the input to the next. Generating that input is done by applying a mathematical calculation called a non-linear activation function. This is a critical part of running a neural network. But applying this function requires a lot of computing power and circuitry because it involves transferring data back and forth between two separate units – the memory and an external processor.

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Apr 28, 2021

More Compact and Efficient Vertical Turbines Could Be the Future for Wind Farms

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, mathematics, sustainability

The now-familiar sight of traditional propeller wind turbines could be replaced in the future with wind farms containing more compact and efficient vertical turbines.

New research from Oxford Brookes University has found that the vertical turbine design is far more efficient than traditional turbines in large-scale wind farms, and when set in pairs the vertical turbines increase each other’s performance by up to 15%.

A research team from the School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics (ECM) at Oxford Brookes led by Professor Iakovos Tzanakis conducted an in-depth study using more than 11500 hours of computer simulation to show that wind farms can perform more efficiently by substituting the traditional propeller-type Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), for compact Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs).

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Apr 25, 2021

New Theory Addresses Centuries-Old Physics Problem

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics, space

Hebrew University Researcher Introduces New Approach to Three-Body Problem, Predicts its Outcome Statistics.

The “three-body problem,” the term coined for predicting the motion of three gravitating bodies in space, is essential for understanding a variety of astrophysical processes as well as a large class of mechanical problems, and has occupied some of the world’s best physicists, astronomers and mathematicians for over three centuries. Their attempts have led to the discovery of several important fields of science; yet its solution remained a mystery.

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Apr 19, 2021

Want to work in the growing space industry? How one CEO says hiring needs to expand

Posted by in categories: business, engineering, government, mathematics, space

The growth of space businesses makes this “the most exciting time” to be involved in the industry, but one CEO says private and government organizations must do more to tap the next generation of U.S. workers.

“I do think there’s opportunities for everybody to participate in the excitement … [and] it’s a great opportunity for the government to really lean in on looking for those public-private partnerships,” Steve Isakowitz, CEO of The Aerospace Corporation and former president of Virgin Galactic, told attendees of the America’s Future Series Space Innovation Summit. The event ran on April 6 and 7.

“We need to do more and expand the candidate pool — we’ve got to make sure that all of America has the benefit of being part of the STEM, K-12, opportunities that are out there,” he added, referring to the academic discipline that includes science, tech, engineering and math.

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Apr 16, 2021

High–load capacity origami transformable wheel

Posted by in categories: education, mathematics, robotics/AI, transportation

Composite membrane origami has been an efficient and effective method for constructing transformable mechanisms while considerably simplifying their design, fabrication, and assembly; however, its limited load-bearing capability has restricted its application potential. With respect to wheel design, membrane origami offers unique benefits compared with its conventional counterparts, such as simple fabrication, high weight-to-payload ratio, and large shape variation, enabling softness and flexibility in a kinematic mechanism that neutralizes joint distortion and absorbs shocks from the ground. Here, we report a transformable wheel based on membrane origami capable of bearing more than a 10-kilonewton load. To achieve a high payload, we adopt a thick membrane as an essential element and introduce a wireframe design rule for thick membrane accommodation. An increase in the thickness can cause a geometric conflict for the facet and the membrane, but the excessive strain energy accumulation is unique to the thickness increase of the membrane. Thus, the design rules for accommodating membrane thickness aim to address both geometric and physical characteristics, and these rules are applied to basic origami patterns to obtain the desired wheel shapes and transformation. The capability of the resulting wheel applied to a passenger vehicle and validated through a field test. Our study shows that membrane origami can be used for high-payload applications.

Origami has been a rich source of inspiration for art, education, and mathematics, and it has proven to be an efficient and effective method for realizing transformable structures in nature (13) and artificial systems (48). Composite membrane origami, the design technique based on the laminar composition of flexible membranes with rigid facet constraints, opens a new field for robotics by the transition from component assembly to lamination, which considerably simplifies design, fabrication, and assembly. This transition simplifies and speeds up fabrication and enables reaching size scales that were difficult to access before (9, 10). In addition, membrane origami provides a versatile shape-changing ability that has been exploited in various applications (1115), and its applicability has been extended by additional design dimensions obtained from material characteristics such as softness and stretchability (1619).

Beyond the aforementioned benefits, origami has been an effective design tool for constructing a high payload-to-weight structure, such as a honeycomb panel, by markedly increasing the buckling strength using unique geometric configurations (20, 21). Combining this feature with reconfigurability, various stiffness transition mechanisms have also been introduced (2224). The rigidity of components is another important factor to secure high load capacity and closely related to the thickness. Origami design is, traditionally, a matter of organizing fold lines under fundamental and ideal assumptions—zero facet thickness and zero fold line width (2527). However, in response to growing interest in origami-inspired applications that require load-bearing capability, various thickness accommodation methods have been introduced (2830).

Apr 13, 2021

The observation of Kardar-Parisi-Zhang hydrodynamics in a quantum material

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

Classical hydrodynamics laws can be very useful for describing the behavior of systems composed of many particles (i.e., many-body systems) after they reach a local state of equilibrium. These laws are expressed by so-called hydrodynamical equations, a set of mathematical equations that describe the movement of water or other fluids.

Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) have recently carried out a study exploring the hydrodynamics of a quantum Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain. Their paper, published in Nature Physics, shows that the spin dynamics of a 1D Heisenberg antiferromagnet (i.e., KCuF3) could be effectively described by a dynamical exponent aligned with the so-called Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class.

“Joel Moore and I have known each other for many years and we both have an interest in quantum magnets as a place where we can explore and test new ideas in physics; my interests are experimental and Joel’s are theoretical,” Alan Tennant, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told “For a long time, we have both been interested in temperature in quantum systems, an area where a number of really new insights have come along recently, but we had not worked together on any projects.”

Mar 31, 2021

Mathematicians Find a New Class of Digitally Delicate Primes

Posted by in category: mathematics

Despite finding no specific examples, researchers have proved the existence of a pervasive kind of prime number so delicate that changing any of its infinite digits renders it composite.

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