Archive for the ‘materials’ category: Page 19

Nov 30, 2023

Researchers use 2D material to reshape 3D electronics for AI hardware

Posted by in categories: materials, robotics/AI

Multifunctional computer chips have evolved to do more with integrated sensors, processors, memory and other specialized components. However, as chips have expanded, the time required to move information between functional components has also grown.

“Think of it like building a house,” said Sang-Hoon Bae, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering and at the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis. “You build out laterally and up vertically to get more function, more room to do more specialized activities, but then you have to spend more time moving or communicating between rooms.”

To address this challenge, Bae and a team of international collaborators, including researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yonsei University, Inha University, Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Notre Dame, demonstrated monolithic 3D integration of layered 2D material into novel processing hardware for artificial intelligence (AI) computing.

Nov 29, 2023

Pollution from cigarette butts cost world US $186 billion in 10 years

Posted by in categories: health, materials

The new study estimates $25.7 billion lost annually in waste management and damage to marine ecosystems.


Cigarette filters were marketed under the guise of addressing health concerns by providing a false impression of safety. These filters, made of a material called cellulose acetate, don’t actually reduce health risks and can even harm the lungs. The cellulose acetate fibers have been shown to deposit into the lungs of smokers.

Nov 29, 2023

Google DeepMind Unveils New AI Tool to Discover New Materials

Posted by in categories: materials, robotics/AI

Google DeepMind and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers recently introduced Graph Networks for Materials Exploration (GNoME), an AI tool to discover new materials and predict material stability.

“We are releasing 381K stable materials to help scientists pursue materials discovery breakthroughs,” said Pushmeet Kohli, head of research (AI for science, robustness and reliability) at DeepMind.

Check out the GitHub repository here.

Nov 27, 2023

NASA-Funded Mission Unveils Lunar Hydrogen Resource for Future Space Exploration

Posted by in categories: materials, space

A recent study published in Communications Earth & Environment examines how lunar samples collected and returned by Apollo astronauts contain traces of hydrogen produced by the solar wind. The samples, labeled 79221, were collected during surface activities on Apollo 17 in 1972, and holds the potential to help scientists and engineers better understand how hydrogen within these samples can be used for future space exploration, specifically pertaining to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU).

The practice of ISRU involves using resources directly available at a location without the need of resupply from an outside source. In this case, future lunar astronauts would want to use resources already present on the Moon for their survivability needs rather than having constant resupply from the Earth, which can be both costly and risky.

“Hydrogen has the potential to be a resource that can be used directly on the lunar surface when there are more regular or permanent installations there,” said Dr. Katherine D. Burgess, who is a geologist in the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Materials Science and Technology Division and lead author of the study. “Locating resources and understanding how to collect them prior to getting to the Moon is going to be incredibly valuable for space exploration.”

Nov 27, 2023

Meet Strange Metals: Where Electricity May Flow Without Electrons

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Some metals seem to carry electric currents without electrons, defying canonical understanding.

For 50 years, physicists have understood current as a flow of charged particles. But a new experiment has found that in at least one strange material, this understanding falls apart.

Nov 26, 2023

Advanced Materials To Enable Wireless Brain-Machine Interface

Posted by in categories: materials, neuroscience

Prof. Sakhrat Khizroev (University of Miami) discusses how new and advanced materials can be used for interfacing machines and the human brain!

#brain #machines #advancedmaterials

Nov 26, 2023

Quantum breakthrough paves way for ‘perfect switch’ in electronic devices

Posted by in categories: materials, quantum physics


Published in the prestigious journal Science, the research explores the emergence of a unique polarized versatility within the one-dimensional metal, offering the potential for a seamless transition between insulator and superconductor states.

Nov 25, 2023

Scientists finally succeed in growing dolomite in the lab by dissolving structural defects during growth

Posted by in category: materials

For 200 years, scientists have failed to grow a common mineral in the laboratory under the conditions believed to have formed it naturally. Now, a team of researchers from the University of Michigan and Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan have finally succeeded, thanks to a new theory developed from atomic simulations.

Their success resolves a long-standing geology mystery called the “Dolomite Problem.” Dolomite—a key mineral in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, Niagara Falls, the White Cliffs of Dover and Utah’s Hoodoos—is very abundant in rocks older than 100 million years, but nearly absent in younger formations.

Continue reading “Scientists finally succeed in growing dolomite in the lab by dissolving structural defects during growth” »

Nov 24, 2023

Crystals Grown With Help From Electron Beam Solve 200-Year-Old Geological Mystery

Posted by in category: materials

A mystery that has dogged materials science for 200 years has finally been solved. A mineral found in many ancient rock formations had stubbornly resisted the efforts of scientists to grow it in the lab, even though they could recreate the conditions they thought formed it in nature. Now, a team has cracked the problem, figuring out how to speedily grow dolomite crystals for the very first time.

Dolomite is a mineral so important, there’s a whole mountain range named after it. As well as these peaks in the Italian Alps, dolomite is abundant in the White Cliffs of Dover, the hoodoos of Utah, and other rocks dating back more than 100 million years. It actually accounts for almost 30 percent of minerals of its type – carbonates – in the Earth’s crust, but it’s notably absent in rocks that formed more recently.

Continue reading “Crystals Grown With Help From Electron Beam Solve 200-Year-Old Geological Mystery” »

Nov 24, 2023

Integrated Circuits based on a 2D Semiconductor Operating at GHz Frequencies

Posted by in categories: computing, materials

Transistors are crucial electronic components that regulate, amplify and control the flow of current inside most existing devices. In recent years, electronics engineers have been trying to identify materials and design strategies that could help to further improve the performance of transistors, while also reducing their size.

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides have some advantageous properties that could help to enhance the capabilities of transistors. While past studies have demonstrated the potential of these materials in individual transistors, their use for developing entire integrated circuits (ICs) that operate at high frequencies has proved challenging.

Researchers at Nanjing University in China recently created new ICs that can operate at GHz frequencies, based on the 2D semiconducting material monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Their devices, presented in a Nature Electronics paper, rely on MoS2-based field-effect transistors (FETs).

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