Archive for the ‘health’ category: Page 11

Jan 22, 2024

NASA Sending Surgical Robot and 3D Metal Printer to Space Station

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, robotics/AI

Scientific investigations on the ISS’s latest resupply mission include advancements in 3D metal printing, semiconductor manufacturing, reentry thermal protection, robotic surgery, and cartilage tissue regeneration. These studies aim to enhance space mission sustainability and have significant implications for Earth-based technologies and health care.

Tests of a 3D metal printer, semiconductor manufacturing, and thermal protection systems for reentry to Earth’s atmosphere are among the scientific investigations that NASA and international partners are launching to the International Space Station on Northrop Grumman’s 20th commercial resupply services mission. The company’s Cygnus cargo spacecraft is scheduled to launch on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida by late January.

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Jan 21, 2024

Neurovascular coupling: Motive unknown

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, neuroscience

It has been known for more than century that increases in neural activity in the brain drive changes in local blood flow, known as neurovascular coupling. The colloquial explanation for these increases in blood flow (referred to as functional hyperemia) in the brain is that they serve to supply the needs of metabolically active neurons. However, there is an large body of evidence that is inconsistent with this idea. In most cases, baseline blood flow is adequate to supply even elevated neural activity. Neurovascular coupling is irregular, absent, or inverted in many brain regions, behavioral states, and conditions. Increases in respiration can generate increases in brain oxygenation independently of flow changes. Simulations have shown that areas with low blood flow are inescapable and cannot be removed by functional hyperemia given the architecture of the cerebral vasculature. What physiological purpose might neurovascular coupling serve? Here, we discuss potential alternative functions of neurovascular coupling. It may serve supply oxygen for neuromodulator synthesis, to regulate cerebral temperature, signal to neurons, stabilize and optimize the cerebral vascular structure, deal with the non-Newtonian nature of blood, or drive the production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid around and through the brain via arterial dilations. Understanding the ‘why’ of neurovascular coupling is an important goal that give insight into the pathologies caused by cerebrovascular disfunction.

Like all energy demanding organs, the brain is highly vascularized. When presented with a sensory stimulus or cognitive task, increases in neural activity in many brain regions are accompanied by local dilation of arterioles and other microvessels, increasing local blood flow, volume and oxygenation. The increase in blood flow in response to increased neural activity (known as functional hyperemia) is controlled by a multitude of different signaling pathways via neurovascular coupling (reviewed in [1,2]). These vascular changes can be monitored non-invasively in humans and other species, with techniques (like BOLD fMRI) that are cornerstones in modern neuroscience [3,4]. Chronic disruptions of neurovascular coupling have adverse health effects on the brain. Stress affects neurovascular coupling [5,6], and many neurodegenerative diseases are marked by vascular dysfunction [7].

Jan 21, 2024

Team develops a real-time photonic processor with picosecond latency for dynamic RF interference

Posted by in categories: health, internet, military, robotics/AI

Radar altimeters are the sole indicators of altitude above a terrain. Spectrally adjacent 5G cellular bands pose significant risks of jamming altimeters and impacting flight landing and takeoff. As wireless technology expands in frequency coverage and utilizes spatial multiplexing, similar detrimental radio-frequency (RF) interference becomes a pressing issue.

To address this interference, RF front ends with exceptionally low latency are crucial for industries like transportation, health care, and the military, where the timeliness of transmitted messages is critical. Future generations of wireless technologies will impose even more stringent latency requirements on RF front-ends due to increased data rate, carrier frequency, and user count.

Additionally, challenges arise from the physical movement of transceivers, resulting in time-variant mixing ratios between interference and signal-of-interest (SOI). This necessitates real-time adaptability in mobile wireless receivers to handle fluctuating interference, particularly when it carries safety-to-life critical information for navigation and autonomous driving, such as aircraft and ground vehicles.

Jan 21, 2024

Main Regulator for the Body’s ‘Oven’ discovered

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

Bonn researchers identify protein that increases the formation of good brown and beige fat. Brown fat cells convert energy into heat — a key to eliminating unwanted fat deposits. In addition, they also protect against cardiovascular diseases. Researchers from the University Hospital Bonn (UKB) and the Transdisciplinary Research Area “Life & Health” at the University of Bonn have now identified the protein EPAC1 as a new pharmacological target to increase brown fat mass and activity. The long-term aim is to find medicines that support weight loss. The results of the study have now been published in the journal Nature Cell Biology.

Obesity is defined as a pathological increase in white fat, and has become a major problem worldwide, with a greatly increased risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke.

“Exercise and dieting are not enough to effectively and permanently shed the pounds,” says corresponding author Prof.

Jan 20, 2024

NEJM Journal Watch: Summaries of and commentary on original medical and scientific articles from key medical journals

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, policy

Should all patients with COPD exacerbations receive oral steroids, or only those with eosinophilia?

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Jan 20, 2024

Japan Lands on the Moon Peregrine Reenters Earth’s Atmosphere

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, education, food, health

Japan’s Moon Snipper Landed on the Moon making Japan the fifth nation to accomplish a lunar landing and Astrobiotic’s Peregrine lunar lander reenters Earth’s atmosphere.

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Jan 19, 2024

Robin Roberts Breaks Down in Tears on ‘GMA’ Over Cancer Research News

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

ABC News anchor Robin Roberts was brought to tears on Thursday while reporting on a new cancer treatment breakthrough. The story was about a new means of helping cancer patients find donors for blood stem cell transplants – something that Roberts herself had to deal with during her own cancer battle and subsequent health issues. She shed tears thinking of families who will not have to worry as much as she did.

Roberts presented this story along with Good Morning America co-hosts George Stephanopoulos and Lara Spencer. They explained how patients previously had to find a near perfect match for a blood stem cell transplant. This was a particular issue for people of color, but this new breakthrough more than doubles their chances of finding a match. They illustrated the effects with the real-life story of a girl who recently survived a cancer diagnosis that would have been much more dangerous beforehand. Roberts explained how broadening the list of potential donors can be so helpful – and can improve the mindsets of patients and their families as well.

Jan 19, 2024

Exercise Boosts Learning and Motor Memory

Posted by in category: health

Summary: Physical activity enhances the ability to learn and remember motor skills. The new research involved 67 young men and explored how exercise before and after motor skill learning impacts memory retention.

The study found that exercising both before and after learning optimizes memory formation, with a notable 10% improvement in remembering motor skills. This research is significant for various fields, from rehabilitation to skill training, demonstrating that incorporating physical activity can enhance learning effectiveness.

Jan 19, 2024

A breakthrough way to train neuromorphic chips

Posted by in categories: computing, health, neuroscience

Using a biosensor to detect cystic fibrosis as the test case, TU/e researchers have devised an innovative way to train neuromorphic chips as presented in a new paper in Nature Electronics.

Neuromorphic computers—which are based on the structure of the human brain—could revolutionize our future health care devices. However, their widespread use is hindered by the need to train neuromorphic computers using external training software, which can be time-consuming and energy inefficient.

Researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology and Northwestern University in the U.S. have developed a new neuromorphic biosensor capable of on-chip learning that doesn’t need external training. As a proof-of-concept, the researchers used the biosensor to diagnose based on sweat samples.

Jan 18, 2024

DNA From Ancient Gum Reveals Secrets of Stone Age Dentistry

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

Mesolithic Scandinavians likely faced oral health issues, with studies on ancient birch tar revealing signs of gum disease, tooth decay, and diverse dietary habits.

Members of a hunter-gatherer group that lived in south-western Scandinavia during the Mesolithic era — approximately 10,000 years ago — may have been affected by tooth decay and gum disease, according to a study published today (January 18) in Scientific Reports.

DNA Analysis of Birch Tar.

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