Archive for the ‘evolution’ category: Page 10

Jun 29, 2023

Harnessing ancient genomes to study the history of human adaptation

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, evolution, genetics

Ancient genomes can inform our understanding of the history of human adaptation through the direct tracking of changes in genetic variant frequency across different geographical locations and time periods. The authors review recent ancient DNA analyses of human, archaic hominin, pathogen, and domesticated animal and plant genomes, as well as the insights gained regarding past human evolution and behaviour.

Jun 26, 2023

Proof of Evolution You Can Find on Your Body (Video)

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, evolution

The human body reveals compelling evidence of evolution. By examining its intricacies, we uncover remnants of our animal ancestors. One such example is the palmaris longus, a vestigial muscle in the forearm. Although it no longer affects grip strength, it can be removed for reconstructive surgeries. Our outer ear muscles also bear witness to our evolutionary past. While their movement is limited to humans, they once aided early nocturnal mammals in sound localization. Today, electrodes can detect slight muscle activity in response to sudden sounds.

Goosebumps offer another intriguing clue. When we’re cold, tiny muscles connected to body hairs contract, causing the hair to stand upright, and creating bumps on the skin. This response, useful for furry mammals’ insulation, can also be triggered by intense emotions or surprising musical moments in humans. Lastly, the tailbone, or coccyx, composed of fused vertebrae, represents the vestiges of our ancestors’ tails. Although all humans develop a tail during embryonic stages, it regresses and disappears, except in rare cases of a vestigial tail present at birth. These remnants within our bodies provide tangible proof of evolution. Delving into these fascinating traces deepens our understanding of our evolutionary journey and our place in the natural world.

Jun 25, 2023

Spatiotemporal signatures of elastoinertial turbulence in viscoelastic planar jets

Posted by in category: evolution

The interplay between viscoelasticity and inertia in dilute polymer solutions at high deformation rates can result in inertio-elastic instabilities. We show how fluid elasticity has a nonmonotonic effect on jet stability depending on magnitude, creating two distinct regimes. The nonlinear evolution of these instabilities generates a state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) with different spatiotemporal features than Newtonian turbulence. We use high-speed digital schlieren imaging and dynamic mode decomposition to quantify EIT and identify two modes of instability which can lead to a transition to turbulence at a lower Reynolds number with flow-aligned structures in the turbulent region.

Jun 24, 2023

Octo-eyes: Unraveling Octopus Vision with Neural Mapping

Posted by in categories: evolution, mapping, neuroscience

Summary: Researchers mapped neural activity in an octopus’s visual system, revealing striking similarities to humans.

The team observed neural responses to light and dark spots, thereby creating a map resembling the organization of the human brain. Interestingly, octopuses and humans last shared a common ancestor around 500 million years ago, suggesting independent evolution of such complex visual systems.

These findings contribute greatly to our understanding of cephalopod vision and brain structure.

Jun 21, 2023

Introducing Chinmo — The Youth Gene

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, evolution, genetics, life extension

Insects, with their remarkable ability to undergo complete metamorphosis, have long fascinated scientists seeking to understand the underlying genetic mechanisms governing this transformative process.

Now, a recent study conducted by the Institute for Evolutionary Biology (IBE, CSIC-UPF) and the IRB Barcelona has shed light on the crucial role of three genes – Chinmo, Br-C and E93 – in orchestrating the stages of insect development. Published in eLife, this research provides valuable insights into the evolutionary origins of metamorphosis and sheds new light on the role of these genes in growth, development and cancer regulation [1].

Longevity. Technology: Chinmo might sound like a Pokémon character, but the truth is much more interesting. Conserved throughout the evolution of insects, scientists think it, and the more conventionally-named Br-C and E93, could play a key role in the evolution of metamorphosis, acting as the hands of the biological clock in insects. A maggot is radically different from the fly into which it changes – could understanding and leveraging the biology involved one day allow us to change cultured skin cells into replacement organs or to stop tumors in their early stages of formation? No, Dr Seth Brundle, you can buzz off.

Jun 21, 2023

Observations of high-mass star seeds defy models

Posted by in categories: cosmology, evolution

Astronomers have mapped 39 interstellar clouds where high-mass stars are expected to form. This large data set shows that the accepted model of low-mass star formation needs to be expanded to explain the formation of high-mass stars. This suggests the formation of high-mass stars is fundamentally different from the formation of low-mass stars, not just a matter of scale.

High-mass stars play an important role in the evolution of the universe through the release of heavy elements and the produced when a massive star explodes in a supernova. Despite their importance, the way form remains poorly understood due to their rarity.

To better understand massive star formation a team led by Kaho Morii, Patricio Sanhueza, and Fumitaka Nakamura used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe 39 infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). IRDCs are massive, cold, and dense clouds of gas and dust; and are thought to be the sites of massive star formation. The team focused on clouds showing no signs of star formation, to understand the beginning of the formation process before ignite. In the 39 clouds, the team found more than 800 stellar seeds, referred to as molecular cloud cores, which astronomers think will evolve into stars.

Jun 20, 2023

NASA Will Make SpaceX Starship into Space Stations

Posted by in categories: evolution, internet, space

NASA will partner with SpaceX to make Starship space stations. This is part of NASA partnering with seven U.S. companies to make advanced space capabilities. SpaceX is collaborating with NASA on an integrated low Earth orbit architecture to provide a growing portfolio of technology with near-term Dragon evolution and concurrent Starship development. This architecture includes Starship as a transportation and in-space low-Earth orbit destination element supported by Super Heavy, Dragon, and Starlink, and constituent capabilities including crew and cargo transportation, communications, and operational and ground support.

Making Giant Space Stations Using SpaceX Starships

Each Starship has more than the volume of the International Space Station. They are also similar in size to the external fuel tank of the old Space Shuttle. There were many space station proposals based upon the external fuel tank of the Space Station. It will be easier to build with SpaceX Starships. The steel construction the SpaceX Starship makes them easy to weld, cut and modify. The SpaceX Starships will start being able to support astronauts.

Jun 17, 2023

Chicken or Egg? Scientists claim to have found answer to centuries-old puzzle

Posted by in category: evolution

In a new study, the scientists claimed to have found the answer to one of the most baffling questions in the history of humankind — ‘What came first: Chicken or the egg?’. The question has to date left everyone, from scholars to schoolchildren, stumped. However, scientists now claim to have discovered the answer.

As per the researchers from the University of Bristol, the early ancestors of reptiles and modern birds are likely to have given birth to live young and may have not laid eggs, according to The Times. The Journal Nature Ecology and Evolution published the study which detailed the discovery.

Scientists, along with researchers from Nanjing University, have challenged the belief which existed so far that hard-shelled eggs were the reason for the success of amniotes, which are animals whose foetuses are developed inside an amnion (membrane or sack) inside the egg.

Jun 16, 2023

Astronomers observe white dwarf star transforming into massive celestial diamond

Posted by in categories: evolution, space

They believe the process could take roughly a quadrillion years.

A team of astronomers discovered a star that is gradually crystallizing into an enormous diamond. Scientists believe it is at the beginning of a process that takes roughly a quadrillion years, a report from reveals. As the universe is 13.6 billion years old, no star has ever fully crystallized.

The discovery sheds new light on the evolution of stars as they gradually transform over time.

Continue reading “Astronomers observe white dwarf star transforming into massive celestial diamond” »

Jun 11, 2023

Measurement-induced entanglement phase transition on a superconducting quantum processor with mid-circuit readout

Posted by in categories: evolution, quantum physics

The interplay of quantum measurements and unitary evolution is expected to produce dynamical phases with different entanglement properties. An entanglement phase transition has now been detected with hybrid quantum circuits in a superconducting processor.

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