Archive for the ‘encryption’ category: Page 4

May 16, 2020

Microwave quantum illumination using a digital receiver

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, encryption, internet, quantum physics

Quantum illumination uses entangled signal-idler photon pairs to boost the detection efficiency of low-reflectivity objects in environments with bright thermal noise. Its advantage is particularly evident at low signal powers, a promising feature for applications such as noninvasive biomedical scanning or low-power short-range radar. Here, we experimentally investigate the concept of quantum illumination at microwave frequencies. We generate entangled fields to illuminate a room-temperature object at a distance of 1 m in a free-space detection setup. We implement a digital phase-conjugate receiver based on linear quadrature measurements that outperforms a symmetric classical noise radar in the same conditions, despite the entanglement-breaking signal path. Starting from experimental data, we also simulate the case of perfect idler photon number detection, which results in a quantum advantage compared with the relative classical benchmark. Our results highlight the opportunities and challenges in the way toward a first room-temperature application of microwave quantum circuits.

Quantum sensing is well developed for photonic applications (1) in line with other advanced areas of quantum information (25). Quantum optics has been, so far, the most natural and convenient setting for implementing the majority of protocols in quantum communication, cryptography, and metrology (6). The situation is different at longer wavelengths, such as tetrahertz or microwaves, for which the current variety of quantum technologies is more limited and confined to cryogenic environments. With the exception of superconducting quantum processing (7), no microwave quanta are typically used for applications such as sensing and communication. For these tasks, high-energy and low-loss optical and telecom frequency signals represent the first choice and form the communication backbone in the future vision of a hybrid quantum internet (810).

Despite this general picture, there are applications of quantum sensing that are naturally embedded in the microwave regime. This is exactly the case with quantum illumination (QI) (11–17) for its remarkable robustness to background noise, which, at room temperature, amounts to ∼103 thermal quanta per mode at a few gigahertz. In QI, the aim is to detect a low-reflectivity object in the presence of very bright thermal noise. This is accomplished by probing the target with less than one entangled photon per mode, in a stealthy noninvasive fashion, which is impossible to reproduce with classical means. In the Gaussian QI protocol (12), the light is prepared in a two-mode squeezed vacuum state with the signal mode sent to probe the target, while the idler mode is kept at the receiver.

May 7, 2020

Intro to Quantum Computing

Posted by in categories: computing, encryption, quantum physics

Quantum computing is seen by many as a technology of the future. In this article, we’re going to look at how to run some non-trivial programs on actual quantum computers. In particular, we’re going to discuss something called graph states. Graph states are used for quantum cryptography, quantum error correction, and measurement based quantum computing. If all of that sounds like a foreign language, that’s okay. We’re going to go through everything, from the ground up, and in detail…and don’t worry, we’ll keep it light and fun.

May 2, 2020

Could Photonic Chips Outpace the Fastest Supercomputers?

Posted by in categories: encryption, quantum physics, robotics/AI, supercomputing

There’s been a lot of talk about quantum computers being able to solve far more complex problems than conventional supercomputers. The authors of a new paper say they’re on the pat h to showing an optical computer c an do so, too.

The idea of using light to carry out computing has a long pedigree, and it has gained traction in recent years with the advent of silicon photonics, which makes it possible to build optical circuits using the same underlying technology used for electronics. The technology s hows particular promise for accelerating deep learning, and is being actively pursued by Intel and a number of startups.

Now Chinese researchers have put a photonic chip t o work tackling a fiendishly complex computer science challenge called the s ubset sum problem in a paper in Science Advances. It ha s some potential applications in cryptography and resource allocation, but primarily it’s used as a benchmark to test the limits of computing.

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Apr 29, 2020

German scientists invent working teleporter, of sorts

Posted by in category: encryption

Circa 2015

New system destructively scans objects transmits them through encrypted communications across any distance and rebuilds it the other side.

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Apr 21, 2020

Scientists Explore Underwater Quantum Links for Submarines

Posted by in categories: encryption, internet, quantum physics, satellites


Underwater quantum links are possible across 30 meters (100 feet) of turbulent water, scientists have shown. Such findings could help to one day secure quantum communications for submarines.

Quantum cryptography exploits the quantum properties of particles such as photons to help encrypt and decrypt messages in a theoretically unhackable way. Scientists worldwide are now endeavoring to develop satellite-based quantum communications networks for a global real-time quantum Internet.

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Apr 2, 2020

Elon Musk’s SpaceX bans Zoom over privacy concerns

Posted by in categories: education, Elon Musk, encryption, privacy, space travel

NASA, one of SpaceX’s biggest customers, also prohibits its employees from using Zoom, said Stephanie Schierholz, a spokeswoman for the U.S. space agency.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Boston office on Monday issued a warning about Zoom, telling users not to make meetings on the site public or share links widely after it received two reports of unidentified individuals invading school sessions, a phenomenon known as “zoombombing.”

Investigative news site The Intercept on Tuesday reported that Zoom video is not end-to-end encrypted between meeting participants, and that the company could view sessions.

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Mar 31, 2020

Tiny optical cavity could make quantum networks possible

Posted by in categories: computing, encryption, internet, quantum physics

Engineers at Caltech have shown that atoms in optical cavities—tiny boxes for light—could be foundational to the creation of a quantum internet. Their work was published on March 30 by the journal Nature.

Quantum networks would connect quantum computers through a system that also operates at a quantum, rather than classical, level. In theory, quantum computers will one day be able to perform certain functions faster than by taking advantage of the special properties of quantum mechanics, including superposition, which allows to store information as a 1 and a 0 simultaneously.

As they can with classical computers, engineers would like to be able to connect multiple quantum computers to share data and work together—creating a “quantum internet.” This would open the door to several applications, including solving computations that are too large to be handled by a single quantum computer and establishing unbreakably secure communications using quantum cryptography.

Mar 30, 2020

Physicists develop new photon source for tap-proof communication

Posted by in categories: encryption, quantum physics, space

An international team with the participation of Prof. Dr. Michael Kues from the Cluster of Excellence PhoenixD at Leibniz University Hannover has developed a new method for generating quantum-entangled photons in a spectral range of light that was previously inaccessible. The discovery can make the encryption of satellite-based communications much more secure in the future.

A 15-member research team from the U.K., Germany and Japan has developed a new method for generating and detecting quantum-entangled photons at a wavelength of 2.1 micrometers. In practice, entangled photons are used in encryption methods such as quantum key distribution to completely secure telecommunications between two partners against eavesdropping attempts. The research results are presented to the public for the first time in the current issue of Science Advances.

It has been regarded as technically possible to implement encryption mechanisms with entangled photons in the near-infrared range of 700 to 1550 nanometers. However, these have disadvantages, especially in satellite-based communication. They are disturbed by light-absorbing gases in the atmosphere as well as the background radiation of the sun. With existing technology, end-to-end encryption of transmitted data can only be guaranteed at night, but not on sunny and cloudy days.

Mar 20, 2020

Scientists Develop World’s First ‘Unhackable’ Encryption System

Posted by in categories: computing, encryption

Circa 2019

Makers of Titanic claimed that it is ‘unsinkable’ and we know how it went down in history. Now, researchers from the University of St Andrews have claimed to have developed an ‘unhackable’ encryption system that stores data in the form of light.

The chip designed by the researchers generates one-time-only key when data is sent through it. The data is stored as light and passed through a specially designed chip that bends and refracts the light to scramble the information.

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Mar 18, 2020

A sneaky attempt to end encryption is worming its way through Congress

Posted by in categories: encryption, government, law enforcement

The EARN IT Act could give law enforcement officials the backdoor they have long wanted — unless tech companies come together to stop it. But Match Group has already endorsed it, putting pressure on Facebook, Twitter, and others.

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