Archive for the ‘cosmology’ category: Page 2

Nov 27, 2023

Using the world’s three most powerful particle accelerators to reveal the space-time geometry of quark matter

Posted by in categories: climatology, cosmology, finance, mapping, particle physics, sustainability

Physicists from the Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE) have been conducting research on the matter constituting the atomic nucleus utilizing the world’s three most powerful particle accelerators. Their focus has been on mapping the “primordial soup” that filled the universe in the first millionth of a second following its inception.

Intriguingly, their measurements showed that the movement of observed particles bears resemblance to the search for prey of marine predators, the patterns of climate change, and the fluctuations of stock market.

In the immediate aftermath of the Big Bang, temperatures were so extreme that atomic nuclei could not exists, nor could nucleons, their building blocks. Hence, in this first instance the universe was filled with a “” of quarks and gluons.

Nov 27, 2023

Exploring the Heart of the Milky Way: Webb Telescope’s Breakthrough Observations

Posted by in categories: cosmology, innovation

NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) recently used its powerful Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) to peer into the very center of our Milky Way Galaxy, revealing stunning details in a star-forming region known as Sagittarius C (Sgr C) like never before, which includes approximately 500,000 in this single image. Sgr C is located approximately 300 light-years from the exact center of the Milky Way known as Sagittarius A*, which is a supermassive black hole. For context, the Milky Way is approximately 105,000 light-years across, so Sgr C being only 300 light-years from the center of the Milky Way is extremely close.

“The galactic center is a crowded, tumultuous place. There are turbulent, magnetized gas clouds that are forming stars, which then impact the surrounding gas with their outflowing winds, jets, and radiation,” said Dr. Rubén Fedriani, who is a Juan de la Cierva Postdoctoral Fellow at the Instituto Astrofísica de Andalucía in Spain and a co-investigator of the project. “Webb has provided us with a ton of data on this extreme environment, and we are just starting to dig into it.”

Nov 27, 2023

Paradox of ultramassive black hole formation solved by supercomputer

Posted by in categories: cosmology, evolution, supercomputing

With a gravitational field so strong that not even light can escape its grip, black holes are probably the most interesting and bizarre objects in the universe.

Due to their extreme properties, a theoretical description of these celestial bodies is impossible within the framework of Newton’s classical theory of gravity. It requires the use of general relativity, the theory proposed by Einstein in 1915, which treats gravitational fields as deformations in the fabric of space-time.

Black holes are usually formed from the collapse of massive stars during their final stage of evolution. Therefore, when a black hole is born, its mass does not exceed a few dozen solar masses.

Nov 26, 2023

Two Big Bangs, One Universe: A New Study That Challenges the Standard Cosmological Model

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

In this video, we will explain a new paper that suggests that there was a second big bang, or a “Dark Big Bang”, that created different kinds of dark matter particles, some of which could be very massive. We will explain how this hypothesis could solve two of the biggest mysteries in cosmology: the origin of the universe and the nature of dark matter. We will also explain how this hypothesis could be tested by future experiments, such as gravitational wave detectors and gamma-ray telescopes. The paper offers a new perspective on the history and structure of the universe, and challenges some of the assumptions and predictions of the standard cosmological model. The paper also opens new possibilities for exploring and understanding the dark sector of the universe, which could reveal new physics and phenomena. So, stay tuned and get ready to explore the dark side of the big bang.

00:00 Introduction.
02:00 The Dark Big Bang.
03:55 The Origin of the Universe.
06:22 The Nature of Dark Matter.
08:27 Outro.
09:03 Enjoy.

Continue reading “Two Big Bangs, One Universe: A New Study That Challenges the Standard Cosmological Model” »

Nov 25, 2023

NASA mission achieves most distant demo of laser communications across space

Posted by in categories: cosmology, innovation

An innovative experiment flying aboard NASA’s Psyche mission just hit its first major milestone by successfully carrying out the most distant demonstration of laser communications. The tech demo could one day help NASA missions probe deeper into space and uncover more discoveries about the origin of the universe.

Launched in mid-October, Psyche is currently en route to catch humanity’s first glimpse of a metal asteroid between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The spacecraft will spend the next six years traveling about 2.2 billion miles (3.6 billion kilometers) to reach its namesake, located in the outer part of the main asteroid belt.

Along for the ride is the Deep Space Optical Communications technology demonstration, or DSOC, which is carrying out a mission of its own during the first two years of the journey.

Nov 23, 2023

Tri-Star Revolution: “Triple Star” Discovery Shakes Up Stellar Evolution Theories

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

A groundbreaking study by University of Leeds scientists proposes that Be stars are part of triple star systems, not binary systems as previously thought. This finding, derived from Gaia satellite data, challenges conventional star formation theories and could impact our knowledge of black holes, neutron stars, and gravitational waves.

Gravitational waves are distortions or ripples in the fabric of space and time. They were first detected in 2015 by the Advanced LIGO detectors and are produced by catastrophic events such as colliding black holes, supernovae, or merging neutron stars.

Nov 21, 2023

1st Black Hole Ever Imaged by Humans Has Twisted Magnetic Fields And Scientists Are Thrilled

Posted by in category: cosmology

Observations from the Event Horizon Telescope show that the supermassive black hole at the heart of the galaxy M87 has twisted magnetic fields that help matter and light escape from the immense gravit.

Nov 20, 2023

Sean Carroll on Causality and the Arrow of Time

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

Sean Carroll speaking at the 6th International FQXi Conference, “Mind Matters: Intelligence and Agency in the Physical World.”

The Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi) catalyzes, supports, and disseminates research on questions at the foundations of physics and cosmology, particularly new frontiers and innovative ideas integral to a deep understanding of reality but unlikely to be supported by conventional funding sources.

Continue reading “Sean Carroll on Causality and the Arrow of Time” »

Nov 20, 2023

String Theory, Quantum Gravity and Black Holes (Or, Are We Holograms?)

Posted by in categories: cosmology, holograms, quantum physics

Join Brian Greene and Juan Maldacena as they explore a wealth of developments connecting black holes, string theory, quantum gravity, quantum entanglement, wormholes, and the holographic principle.

This program is part of the Big Ideas Series, made possible with support from the John Templeton Foundation.

Continue reading “String Theory, Quantum Gravity and Black Holes (Or, Are We Holograms?)” »

Nov 20, 2023

Supermassive black hole at the heart of the Milky Way is approaching the cosmic speed limit, dragging space-time along with it

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

The supermassive black hole at the heart of our galaxy isn’t just spinning — it’s doing so at almost maximum speed, dragging anything near it along for the ride.

Physicists calculated the rotational speed of the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole, called Sagittarius A* (Sgr A, by using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory to view the X-rays and radio waves emanating from outflows of material.

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