Archive for the ‘biotech/medical’ category: Page 7

Nov 28, 2023

Patient Dies After Being Gene-Edited to Have Lower Cholesterol

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics

Researchers have been able to reduce dramatically the level of bad cholesterol in human subjects after injecting them with an experimental gene editing treatment, according to the science journal Nature, which is the first time this technique, called base editing, has been done on humans.

But at least one person died after receiving an infusion, prompting a round of safety concerns.

In the clinical trial, 10 subjects with congenitally high levels of bad cholesterol, aka low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were given an injection of VERVE-101, a gene-editing treatment that uses the base editing technique. This treatment then turned off the gene for the protein PCSK9, which is found in the liver and regulates LDL. High levels of LDL can lead to coronary heart disease.

Nov 28, 2023

Structure-related intrinsic electrical states and firing patterns of neurons with active dendrites

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Activity of neurons embedded in networks is an inseparable composition of evoked and intrinsic processes. Prevalence of either component depends on the neuron’s function and state (e.g. low/high conductance or depolarization states). Dominant intrinsic firing is thought functionally normal for the pacemaker neuron, but not for the sensory afferent neuron or spinal motoneuron serving to transmit rather than to originate signals. Activity of the multi-functional networked cell, depending on its intrinsic states, bears both cell-and network-defined features. Complex firing patterns of a neuron are conventionally attributed to complex spatial-temporal organization of inputs received from the network-mates via synapses, in vast majority dendritic. This attribution reflects widespread views of the within-cell job sharing, such that the main function of the dendrites is to receive signals and deliver them to the axo-somatic trigger zone, which actually generates the output pattern. However, these views require revisiting with account of active properties of the dendrites due to voltage-dependent channels found in the dendritic membrane of practically all types of explored neurons. Like soma and axon, the dendrites with active membrane are able to generate self-maintained, propagating depolarizations and thus share intrinsic pattern-forming role with the trigger zone. Unlike the trigger zone, the dendrites have complex geometry, which is subject to developmental, activity-dependent, or neurodegenerative changes. Structural features of the arborization inevitably impact on electrical states and cooperative behavior of its constituting parts at different levels of organization, from branches and sub-trees to voltage-and ligand-gated ion channels populating the membrane. Nearly two decades of studies have brought numerous phenomenological demonstrations of influence of the dendritic structure on firing patterns in neurons. A necessary step forward is to comprehend these findings and build a firm theoretical basis, including quantitative relationships between geometrical and electrical characteristics determining intrinsic firing of neurons. This Research Topic is aimed at bringing together contributions of researches from different domains of expertise and building a conceptual framework for deeper insight into the nature of dynamic intrinsic motifs in the firing patterns.

We welcome research and methodology papers, mini-reviews, conceptual generalizations and opinions on the following issues:

1. Electrical states of heterogeneous populations of ion channels: definition, life-times, meta-and multi-stability.

Nov 27, 2023

Study unveils the engagement of different cortical networks while humans are unconscious

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Despite substantial work, we are still unsure which brain regions are involved and how they are impacted when consciousness is disrupted.

States of unconsciousness, such as those that occur during sleep or while under the effect of anesthesia, have been the focus of countless past neuroscience studies. While these works have identified some brain regions that are active and inactive when humans are unconscious, the precise contribution of each of these regions to consciousness remains largely unclear.

Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital recently carried out a study aimed at better understanding the activity of different regions of the cortex, the outer layer of the mammalian , during different states of unconsciousness, namely sleep and . Their paper, published in Neuron, identifies distinct cortical networks that are engaged during different states of unconsciousness.

Continue reading “Study unveils the engagement of different cortical networks while humans are unconscious” »

Nov 27, 2023

A population-level digital histologic biomarker for enhanced prognosis of invasive breast cancer

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, robotics/AI

An important #AI report for breast cancer leading to the potential of sparing chemotherapy for many. The 1st comprehensive analysis of both cancerous and non-cancerous tissue in hundreds of thousands of patient tissues->HiPS score

Deep learning enables comprehensive and interpretable scoring for breast cancer prognosis prediction, outperforming pathologists in multicenter validation and providing insight on prognostic biomarkers.

Nov 27, 2023

CRISPR-powered optothermal nanotweezers

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, engineering, nanotechnology

Optothermal nanotweezers are an innovative optical design method that has revolutionized classical optical techniques to capture a broad range of nanoparticles. While the optothermal temperature field can be employed for in situ regulation of nanoparticles, challenges remain in identifying their potential for regulating bionanoparticles.

To observe the synergistic effects of optothermal manipulation and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-based biodetection, the researchers developed a combination of CRISPR-powered optothermal nanotweezers abbreviated as CRONT.

In a new report in Light: Science & Applications, Jiajie Chen and a research team in optoelectronics engineering, , and physics, accomplished this by harnessing diffusiophoresis and thermo-osmotic flows for optothermal excitation by successfully enriching DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles, CRISPR-associated proteins, and DNA strands.

Nov 27, 2023

AWS, Hoppr Launch Model to Accelerate Generative AI Tools in Medical Imaging

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, robotics/AI

AI startup Hoppr teamed up with AWS to launch a new foundation model to help bring more generative AI solutions into medical imaging, the companies announced on Sunday at RSNA 2023, the annual radiology and medical imaging conference in Chicago.

The new product, named Grace, is a B2B model designed to help application developers build better AI solutions for medical images — and to build them more quickly. Along with the launch of Grace, Hoppr also announced that it received “a multi-million dollar investment” from Health2047, the American Medical Association’s venture studio.

Continue reading “AWS, Hoppr Launch Model to Accelerate Generative AI Tools in Medical Imaging” »

Nov 27, 2023

Survey Finds Half of Tech Workers Think AI Is a Bunch of Hype

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, business, military, robotics/AI

As boosters say AI is primed to conquer entire sectors, from military to medicine, a significant portion of the tech world is surprisingly unconvinced by its utility, according to a new survey from software development business Retool.

In the survey of 1,500 people working in tech, Retool found that a startling 51.6 percent of people think AI is overrated, while 25.1 percent think it’s underrated, and another 23.4 percent think it’s fairly rated. The people surveyed include executives, software engineers, designers, and other positions in different industries.

Particularly striking was that workers in executive roles had a more favorable view of AI while people in the technical side “skewed a little more toward overrated” — perhaps not a surprise, since many business leaders have been crowing about the potential cost savings of AI and how it could generate more revenue.

Nov 27, 2023

Team uses gold nanowires to develop wearable sensor that measures two bio-signals

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, information science, nanotechnology, wearables

A research team led by Professor Sei Kwang Hahn and Dr. Tae Yeon Kim from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) used gold nanowires to develop an integrated wearable sensor device that effectively measures and processes two bio-signals simultaneously. Their research findings were featured in Advanced Materials.

Wearable devices, available in various forms like attachments and patches, play a pivotal role in detecting physical, chemical, and electrophysiological signals for disease diagnosis and management. Recent strides in research focus on devising wearables capable of measuring multiple bio-signals concurrently.

However, a major challenge has been the disparate materials needed for each signal measurement, leading to interface damage, complex fabrication, and reduced device stability. Additionally, these varied signal analyses require further signal processing systems and algorithms.

Nov 27, 2023

Fresh perspectives on antibiotic resistance

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

Easy navigation in a rugged fitness landscape.

Nov 27, 2023

Study identifies key markers for early detection of fatty liver disease in obese and non-obese individuals

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

In a recent study published in the journal Scientific Reports, researchers compare whether insulin-and non-insulin-based insulin resistance (IR) markers could predict the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese and non-obese individuals with no history of diabetes or hepatitis.

Study: Markers of insulin resistance associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in non-diabetic population. Image Credit: Jo Panuwat D /

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