Archive for the ‘biological’ category: Page 7

Feb 15, 2023

Beyond the brain: multiscale diverse intelligence as biological inspiration for AI

Posted by in categories: biological, robotics/AI

This is a talk I gave to an audience of computer scientists and neuroscientists, interested in AI, consciousness, and the brain.

Feb 15, 2023

Gene Expression in Neurons Solves a Brain Evolution Puzzle

Posted by in categories: biological, evolution, neuroscience

๐“๐ก๐ž ๐ง๐ž๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ž๐ฑ ๐ฌ๐ญ๐š๐ง๐๐ฌ ๐จ๐ฎ๐ญ ๐š๐ฌ ๐š ๐ฌ๐ญ๐ฎ๐ง๐ง๐ข๐ง๐  ๐š๐œ๐ก๐ข๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐›๐ข๐จ๐ฅ๐จ๐ ๐ข๐œ๐š๐ฅ ๐ž๐ฏ๐จ๐ฅ๐ฎ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง. ๐€๐ฅ๐ฅ ๐ฆ๐š๐ฆ๐ฆ๐š๐ฅ๐ฌ ๐ก๐š๐ฏ๐ž ๐ญ๐ก๐ข๐ฌ ๐ฌ๐ฐ๐š๐ญ๐ก ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐ฌ๐ฎ๐ž ๐œ๐จ๐ฏ๐ž๐ซ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ญ๐ก๐ž๐ข๐ซ ๐›๐ซ๐š๐ข๐ง, ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ฌ๐ข๐ฑ ๐ฅ๐š๐ฒ๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐๐ž๐ง๐ฌ๐ž๐ฅ๐ฒ ๐ฉ๐š๐œ๐ค๐ž๐ ๐ง๐ž๐ฎ๐ซ๐จ๐ง๐ฌ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก๐ข๐ง ๐ข๐ญ ๐ก๐š๐ง๐๐ฅ๐ž ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ฌ๐จ๐ฉ๐ก๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ข๐œ๐š๐ญ๐ž๐ ๐œ๐จ๐ฆ๐ฉ๐ฎ๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐š๐ฌ๐ฌ๐จ๐œ๐ข๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ ๐ญ๐ก๐š๐ญ ๐ฉ๐ซ๐จ๐๐ฎ๐œ๐ž ๐œ๐จ๐ ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐ž ๐ฉ๐ซ๐จ๐ฐ๐ž๐ฌ๐ฌ. ๐’๐ข๐ง๐œ๐ž ๐ง๐จ ๐š๐ง๐ข๐ฆ๐š๐ฅ๐ฌ ๐จ๐ญ๐ก๐ž๐ซ ๐ญ๐ก๐š๐ง ๐ฆ๐š๐ฆ๐ฆ๐š๐ฅ๐ฌ ๐ก๐š๐ฏ๐ž ๐š ๐ง๐ž๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ž๐ฑ, ๐ฌ๐œ๐ข๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ฌ ๐ก๐š๐ฏ๐ž ๐ฐ๐จ๐ง๐๐ž๐ซ๐ž๐ ๐ก๐จ๐ฐ ๐ฌ๐ฎ๐œ๐ก ๐š ๐œ๐จ๐ฆ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฑ ๐›๐ซ๐š๐ข๐ง ๐ซ๐ž๐ ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐ž๐ฏ๐จ๐ฅ๐ฏ๐ž๐.

The brains of reptiles seemed to offer a clue. Not only are reptiles the closest living relatives of mammals, but their brains have a three-layered structure called a dorsal ventricular ridge, or DVR, with functional similarities to the neocortex.

The neocortex stands out as a stunning achievement of biological evolution. All mammals have this swath of tissue covering their brain, and the six layers of densely packed neurons within it handle the sophisticated computations and associations that produce cognitive prowess. Since no animals other than mammals have a neocortex, scientists have wondered how such a complex brain region evolved.

Continue reading “Gene Expression in Neurons Solves a Brain Evolution Puzzle” »

Feb 14, 2023

Scientists Use โ€œAcoustic Hologramsโ€ To Form Particles Into Complex 3D Shapes

Posted by in categories: biological, holograms, particle physics

Thatโ€™s exactly what researchers in Germany set out to do, making use of โ€œacoustic hologramsโ€ to form distinct 3D shapes out of particles suspended in water โ€” all in โ€œone shot,โ€ said study lead author Kai Melde, a researcher from the Max Planck Institute, in a press release.

According to a study on the work, published last week in the journal Science Advances, the researchers were able to create a helix and a figure 8 out of silica gel beads, assembled biological cells into spherical clumps, and even provided a compelling concept for forming the shape of a dove in future experiments.

These acoustic holograms work by cleverly manipulating the pressure exerted by high frequency ultrasonic waves via the inexpensive use of a conventionally 3D-printed plate.

Feb 14, 2023

The Inner Life of the Cell by Harvard and HHMI narrated by Tydell

Posted by in category: biological

The Inner Life of the Cell by Harvard and HHMIThis is just me showing you how much youโ€™ve already learned about biology.

Feb 14, 2023

New Models Help Unveil the Mystery of Lifeโ€™s Origins on Earth

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry

New research reveals clues about the physical and chemical characteristics of Earth when life is thought to have emerged.

About four billion years ago, the first signs of life emerged on Earth in the form of microbes. Although scientists are still determining exactly when and how these microbes appeared, itโ€™s clear that the emergence of life is intricately intertwined with the chemical and physical characteristics of early Earth.

โ€œIt is reasonable to suspect that life could have started differentlyโ€”or not at allโ€”if the early chemical characteristics of our planet were different,โ€ says Dustin Trail, an associate professor of earth and environmental sciences at the University of Rochester.

Feb 12, 2023

A deep reinforcement learning model that allows AI agents to track odor plumes

Posted by in categories: biological, food, robotics/AI

For a long time, scientists and engineers have drawn inspiration from the amazing abilities of animals and have sought to reverse engineer or reproduce these in robots and artificial intelligence (AI) agents. One of these behaviors is odor plume tracking, which is the ability of some animals, particularly insects, to home in on the source of specific odors of interest (e.g., food or mates), often over long distances.

A new study by researchers at University of Washington and University of Nevada, Reno has taken an innovative approach using (ANNs) in understanding this remarkable ability of flying insects. Their work, recently published in Nature Machine Intelligence, exemplifies how is driving groundbreaking new scientific insights.

โ€œWe were motivated to study a complex biological behavior, -tracking, that flying insects (and other animals) use to find food or mates,โ€ Satpreet H. Singh, the lead author on the study, told Tech Xplore. โ€œBiologists have experimentally studied many aspects of insect plume tracking in great detail, as it is a critical behavior for insect survival and reproduction. โ€.

Feb 11, 2023

Tassili nโ€™Ajjer

Posted by in category: biological

Tassili nโ€™Ajjer is a national park in the Sahara desert, located on a vast plateau in southeastern Algeria, bordering Libya, Niger, and Mali. It covers an area of roughly 80,000 sq. km. and contains one of the most important collections of prehistoric rock art in the world; it was inducted into the UNESCO World Heritage Site list in 1982. In 1986, UNESCO declared the area a Biosphere Reserve.

The plateau is composed largely of sandstone, and the natural erosion has resulted in hundreds of natural rock arches and other spectacular land formations โ€” the โ€˜forests of stoneโ€™. Because of the altitude and the water-holding properties of the sandstone, the vegetation is somewhat richer than in the surrounding desert, and includes scattered woodland of the endangered endemic species of the Saharan cypress โ€” one of the oldest trees in the world โ€” and the Saharan myrtle. The literal English translation of Tassili nโ€™Ajjer is โ€˜plateau of riversโ€™. Relict populations of the West African crocodile persisted in the Tassili nโ€™Ajjer until the twentieth century. Various other fauna still reside on the plateau, including Barbary sheep, the only surviving type of the larger mammals depicted in the rock art of the area.

Feb 11, 2023

New models shed light on lifeโ€™s origin

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, space

The first signs of life emerged on Earth in the form of microbes about four billion years ago. While scientists are still determining exactly when and how these microbes appeared, itโ€™s clear that the emergence of life is intricately intertwined with the chemical and physical characteristics of early Earth.

โ€œIt is reasonable to suspect that life could have started differentlyโ€”or not at allโ€”if the early chemical characteristics of our planet were different,โ€ says Dustin Trail, an associate professor of and environmental sciences at the University of Rochester.

But what was Earth like billions of years ago, and what characteristics may have helped life to form? In a paper published in Science, Trail and Thomas McCollom, a research associate at the University of Colorado Boulder, reveal key information in the quest to find out. The research has important implications not only for discovering the but also in the search for life on other planets.

Feb 11, 2023

Why Carl Sagan believed that science is a source of spirituality

Posted by in categories: biological, ethics, evolution, law, science

Yes, the world has some serious problems, but if we did not have problems, we would never be forced to find new solutions. Problems push progress forward. Letโ€™s embrace our ultimate existential challenges and come together to solve them. It is time to forget our differences and think of ourselves only as humans, engaged in a common biological and moral struggle. If the cosmic perspective, and the philosophy of poetic meta-naturalism, or some similar world-view of evolution and emergence, can build a bridge between the reductionist worldview and the religions of the world, then we can be optimistic that a new level of order and functionality will emerge from the current sea of chaos.

Knowledge is enlightenment, knowledge is transcendence, and knowledge is power. The tendency toward disorder described by the second law requires that life acquire knowledge forever, giving us all an individual and collective purpose by creating the constraint that forces us to create. By becoming aware of our emergent purpose, we can live more meaningful lives, in harmony with one another and with the aspirations of nature. You are not a cosmic accident. You are a cosmic imperative.

Feb 10, 2023

Consciousness in the machine

Posted by in categories: biological, robotics/AI

Earlier this year, Google fired Blake Lemoine, for claiming that the companyโ€™s chatbot was a self aware person. While the claim was derided, the belief that one day AI will become conscious is widespread and, according to a recent survey, held by 79% of experts. But many claim this is a fundamental error. While machines are becoming ever more capable and intelligent we still have no idea how a machine could create consciousness nor are neuroscientists able to provide an explanation for how the human brain does so.

Should we accept that consciousness arises in biological beings and that AI just isnโ€™t made of the โ€˜right stuffโ€™? Or, is it possible that a computer that observes, interacts, and represents its own internal state to itself might also give rise to consciousness? Then again, is the puzzle deeper still on the grounds that we have no means of determining whether an intelligent machine, an organism or even a person other than ourselves is conscious or not?

Legendary anti-reality theorist Donald Hoffman, fearless computer scientist and philosopher Bernardo Kastrup and distinguished AI ethicist and philosopher Susan Schneider lock horns over the possibility of AI consciousness. Theories of Everythingโ€™s Curt Jaimungal hosts.

Continue reading “Consciousness in the machine” »

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