Archive for the ‘biological’ category: Page 7

Aug 7, 2022

Helium-ion-beam nanofabrication: Extreme processes and applications

Posted by in categories: biological, nanotechnology

Helium ion beam (HIB) technology plays an important role in the extreme fields of nanofabrication. Due to high resolution and sensitivity, HIB nanofabrication technology is widely used to pattern nanostructures into components, devices, or systems in integrated circuits, materials sciences, nano-optics, and bio-sciences applications. HIB-based nanofabrication includes direct-write milling, ion beam-induced deposition, and direct-write lithography without the need to resist assistance. Their nanoscale applications have also been evaluated in the areas of integrated circuits, materials sciences, nano-optics, and biological sciences.

In a new paper published in the International Journal of Extreme Manufacturing, a team of researchers, led by Dr. Deqiang Wang from Chongqing Key Laboratory of Multi-scale Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PR China, have summarized comprehensively the extreme processes and applications of HIB .

The main aim of this review is to address the latest developments in HIB with their extreme processing capabilities and widespread applications in nanofabrication. Based on the introduction of the HIM system with GFIS, the performance characteristics and advantages of HIB technology have been discussed first. Thereafter, certain questions about the extreme processes and applications of HIB nanofabrication have been addressed: How many extreme processes and applications of HIB technology have been developed in nanofabrication for integrated circuits, materials sciences, nano-optics, and bio-sciences applications? What are the main challenges in the extreme nanofabrication with HIB technology for high resolution and sensitivity applications?

Aug 2, 2022

Distinct toll‐like receptor signaling in the salamander response to tissue damage

Posted by in category: biological

Circa 2021 This article states that humans have possibly an untapped regeneration ability and they may have found it in mice.

Using new phospho-flow cytometry techniques to measure signaling in individual cell subsets we compared mouse to salamander inflammation. These studies demonstrated evolutionarily conserved responses to PAMP ligands through toll-like receptors (TLRs) but identified key differences in response to DAMP ligands. Co-exposure of macrophages to DAMPs/PAMPs suppressed MAPK signaling in mammals, but not salamanders, which activate sustained MAPK stimulation in the presence of endogenous DAMPS.

Aug 1, 2022

MIT Researchers Create Artificial Synapses 10,000x Faster Than Biological Ones

Posted by in categories: biological, robotics/AI, space

Researchers have been trying to build artificial synapses for years in the hope of getting close to the unrivaled computational performance of the human brain. A new approach has now managed to design ones that are 1,000 times smaller and 10,000 times faster than their biological counterparts.

Despite the runaway success of deep learning over the past decade, this brain-inspired approach to AI faces the challenge that it is running on hardware that bears little resemblance to real brains. This is a big part of the reason why a human brain weighing just three pounds can pick up new tasks in seconds using the same amount of power as a light bulb, while training the largest neural networks takes weeks, megawatt hours of electricity, and racks of specialized processors.

That’s prompting growing interest in efforts to redesign the underlying hardware AI runs on. The idea is that by building computer chips whose components act more like natural neurons and synapses, we might be able to approach the extreme space and energy efficiency of the human brain. The hope is that these so-called “neuromorphic” processors could be much better suited to running AI than today’s computer chips.

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Jul 29, 2022

ACS Synthetic Biology Call for Papers for Synthetic Cells

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biological

Living organisms offer extensive diversity in terms of their phenotypes, metabolic processes, and adaptation to various niches. However, the basic building blocks that create this diversity are remarkably similar. How can we advance our understanding of the fascinating mechanisms that drive biological complexity and how can we harness biological components to build entirely new materials and devices?

A new Special Issue from ACS Synthetic Biology will focus on this dynamic topic, including contributions that deconstruct as well as build up and mimic biological systems. The resulting work serves both to test our scientific understanding and to extend known biology to develop new concepts and applications. The issue will be led by Associate Editor Michael Jewett with Guest Editors Kate Adamala, Marileen Dogterom, and Neha Kamat.

Jul 28, 2022

#58 Dr. Ben Goertzel — Artificial General Intelligence

Posted by in categories: biological, blockchains, information science, neuroscience, physics, robotics/AI, singularity


The field of Artificial Intelligence was founded in the mid 1950s with the aim of constructing “thinking machines” — that is to say, computer systems with human-like general intelligence. Think of humanoid robots that not only look but act and think with intelligence equal to and ultimately greater than that of human beings. But in the intervening years, the field has drifted far from its ambitious old-fashioned roots.

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Jul 28, 2022

First Computer made of Human Brain Cells beating A.I.!?

Posted by in categories: biological, robotics/AI

Artificial Intelligence is pretty much THE HOLY GRAIL of Future Technologies.
There is no big Company nor University, which is not working on the development of Artificial Intelligence.
Role models are often the superior performance of the biological brain, but that’s also a lot of work.
So a development team in Australia therefore wants to save tedious development time and insert brain cells into Computers!
You may think that sounds crazy?
But their first prototype is already learning faster than traditional Artificial Intelligences of computers.

How did they even do that? This is exactly what we will talk about in this video.

Jul 27, 2022

The Virus Zoo: A Quick Primer on Molecular Virology

Posted by in categories: biological, biotech/medical, chemistry, education, genetics

The Virus Zoo is my latest educational blog post! I’ve written up ~1 page ‘cheat sheets’ on the molecular biology of specific viruses. I cover genome, structure, and life cycle. So far, my zoo includes adeno-associated virus (AAV), adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). However, I plan to add more viruses as time goes on! Some others I would like to incorporate later are coronavirus, HIV, anellovirus, lentivirus, ebolavirus, and MS2 bacteriophage. Feel free to suggest other interesting viruses in the comments! All images were created by me. #virology #molecularbiology #biotechnology #genetherapy #virus #biochemistry #genetics

Genome and Structure:

AAV genomes are about 4.7 kb in length and are composed of ssDNA. Inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) form hairpin structures at ends of the genome. These ITR structures are important for AAV genomic packaging and replication. Rep genes (encoded via overlapping reading frames) include Rep78, Rep68, Rep52, Rep40.1 These proteins facilitate replication of the viral genome. As a Dependoparvovirus, additional helper functions from adenovirus (or certain other viruses) are needed for AAVs to replicate.

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Jul 26, 2022

An #amazing #animation of #dopamine Transmission Across the #neurons #neuroscience #science #brainpower #thoughts #Wow #beautiful #biology

Posted by in categories: biological, neuroscience, science

Click on photo to start video.

Jul 26, 2022

A new study confutes the bold theory that T. rex was three separate species

Posted by in categories: biological, education

Back in March this year, a study published in Evolutionary Biology claimed that fossils categorized as Tyrannosaurus rex represent three separate species. However, a new study published on July 25 in Evolutionary Biology refutes this claim and suggests that the previous research lacked evidence and Tyrannosaurus rex is made of only one species.

The previously controversial research implied that T. rex should be reclassified as three different species, including the standard T. rex, the bulkier “T. imperator,” and the slimmer “T. regina.” Researchers analyzed 38 T. rex fossils that contained leg bones and teeth samples, a press release revealed.

However, paleontologists at the American Museum of Natural History and Carthage College were determined to review the data of the previous research, adding data points from 112 species of living dinosaurs—birds—and from four non-avian theropod dinosaurs.

Jul 26, 2022

Self-Healing Living Sneakers

Posted by in categories: biological, wearables

Circa 2013

What if your running shoes could really adapt to your feet — and not just in the way that footwear retailers describe to solidify sales. These cutting-edge Protocells Trainers present the fascinating possibilities of wearable living materials that can grow, modify and repair themselves through continuous use.

Shamees Aden has been working with Dr. Martin Hanczyc on these innovative kicks, developing a synthetic biological substance that could be 3D printed to fit the wearer’s feet like gloves. The composite organic fabric would provide surface protection to toes and soles, yet it could also offer support skeletal and muscular. The anatomical tissue of the Protocells Trainers would thicken in areas that experience more pressure, and they could heal their own tears while bottled in a special solution overnight.

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